Lecture Slides - Chapter 9 Thinking and Intelligence.pptx -...

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ThinkingandIntelligenceChapter 9
Thinkingandlanguagearetwo talents that arepart of being human.But...how unique are thesetalents to humans?in what ways are thesetalents better suited forsurvival than forthinking like a scientist?
ThinkingTopics to Think AboutConcepts:Categoriesand PrototypesProblem Solving:Algorithms, Insights,heuristicsJudgment errors:Availability Heuristic,Overconfidence,Belief PerseveranceThe effects ofFraming on judgmentCognitive skills inother species
Cognitionrefers tomentalactivities and processesassociated with thinking,knowing, remembering, andcommunicating information.Cognition can include reasoning, judgment, andassembling new information into knowledge.Cognition also supports these other psychologicalprocesses: attention, emotion, consciousness,perception, learning, memory, language, mentalhealth, and social interaction.Thinking, a.k.a. Cognition
Thinking: TopicsConcepts:the buildingblocks ofthinkingProblemsolvingstrategies andobstacles toeffectiveproblemsolvingDo other animalshave thinking skillslike humans do?
Pieces of Cognition:ConceptsAconceptis a mental groupingof similar objects,events, states,ideas, and/orpeople, etc.A concept canbe representedandcommunicatedby an image, orby a word suchas “chair,”“party,” or“democracy.”
How do we form/learn concepts?We think we form concepts bydefinitions. For example,we define a triangle as an object with three sides.But is this how we actuallyformconcepts?Often, we form concepts by developingprototypes, thatis,mental images of the best example of a concept.Draw thetriangle thatyou imagine;that is, drawyour prototypeof a triangle.What does your prototype of thetriangle look like?
Conceptualizinga ChairWhat is your definition of “chair”?What is your prototype of “chair”?Which of these fit the “chair” concept?
The Urge to CategorizeWhat was thepercentage Asian inthis blendedCaucasian/Asianface?What was thepercentage Caucasian inthe second blendedface?
When Prototypes Fail UsPrototypes fail uswhen examples stretch ourdefinitions, as in considering whether a stoolis a chair.Prototypes fail uswhen the boundarybetween concepts is fuzzy, as in judging blue-green colors or computer-blended faces.Prototypes fail uswhen examples contradictour prototypes, such as considering whethera whale is a mammal, or a penguin is a bird.
Obstacles to Effective ProblemSolvingThere are certain tendencies in human cognitionwhich make it more difficult to findcorrectsolutions to problems.Fixation/mental setConfirmationbiasHeuristics(which help solve problemsquickly but can lead tomistaken conclusions)
Confirmation BiasConfirmation biasrefersto our tendency to searchfor information whichconfirms our currenttheory, disregardingcontradictory evidence.

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Term
Fall
Professor
Hein
Tags
Intelligence quotient, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale

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