The Basics – Discovering DNA structure Deoxyribose: a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms, and including an aldehyde functional group in its linear structure. It is a deoxy sugar derived from the pentose sugar ribose by the replacement of the hydroxyl group at the 2 position with hydrogen, leading to the net loss of an oxygen atom. Ribose: forms a five-member ring composed of four carbon atoms and one oxygen. Avery, Macleod, and Mccarty: discovered DNA is the material of which genes and chromosomes are made. Hershey and Chase: performed the famous Hershey-Chase blender experiment which provided additional evidence that DNA, not protein, was the genetic material. Fraenkel-Conrat: discovered that the genetic control of viral reproduction was RNA and that it is carried in the nucleic core of each virus. Watson and Crick: discovered the structure of DNA as a double helix. Chargaff: stated that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine is equal to cytosine and the
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