The Basics – Probability Probability: Likelihood of a particular event occurring; more formally, the number of times a particular event occurs divided by the number of all possible outcomes. Probability values range from 0 to 1. Phenotype: Appearance or manifestation of a characteristic. Genotype: The set of genes that an individual possess. Homozygote: The condition of having two like alleles in a diploid. Heterozygote: The condition of having two different alleles in a diploid. Gene: Genetic factor that helps determine a trait; often defined at the molecular level as a DNA sequence that is transcribed into an RNA molecule. Allele: One of two or more alternate form of a gene. Locus (loci): The site on chromosome where a gene is located. Usually defined by recombinational mapping relative to neighboring loci. Zygote: A diploid cell formed by the fusion of two haploid gametes during fertilization in eukaryotic organisms with sexual reproduction. It is the first cell of the new individual.
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