NES Midterm Review - Sites Abydos early kings form D0 to D2...

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Sites - Abydos: early kings form D0 to D2 were buried in royal cemetery, where royal elite were also buried, aka Umm el Qaab - Saqqara: royal cemetary from D2 (matching the changes from mastaba to pyramid) - Mesopotamia: NW of Egypt, built around a river also, had city-state government, advance in metal work Pyramids/Tombs - Djoser complex: in Saqqar (D3), first “pyramid” of Egypt, 6 steps now, originally a mastaba until rebuilt several times - Meydum pyramid: (one of the many) created my Snefru, located in Meydum D4, likely a pyramid but natural winds have reduced down to what looks like 2 blocks surrounded by pile of sand (remnants of the outside of the original building) - Pyramid of Unas: in Saqqara, D5, in ruins now, used to be pyramid, shows 128 magic spells of the Pyramid Texts, contained images of starving people - Sphinx: head of a recumbent lion and face of Khafre in Giza, sphinxes in Egypt often have head of man and body of recumbent lion. - Abydos Tomb U-j: Rectangle tomb of Scorpion King, D0 - Giza Plateau: Area in Giza where the 3 Pyramids of Khufu, Khafre, Menkaure lie - Mereuka: has the largest mastaba, married to the daughter of Teti (D6) - Pyramid Complex: includes the pyramid, mortuary temple, valley temple, causeway, chapel/entrance, enclosure wall, satellite/Queen’s pyramid, Serdab. Pepi II contained the most of these components - Kings - Den: first unified king, 4 th king of D1, buried at Abydos with elaborate tomb (Tomb T), ivory labels were recovered from tomb showing images of the king striking foreigners - Khasekhem/wy: 5 th /last pharaoh of D2, reunited Egypt (may have changed name to reflect this), had Horus and Seth’s name at the same time - Double Crown: White crown of Upper Egypt and Red crown of Lower Egypt combined, first noticed in Nomer palette (separately on the same person). - Snefru: 4 th dynasty king, first to use cartouche for his name and not the Horus name. (Re)built several pyramid complexes, beginning with the Meydum pyramid, Red and bent pyramids, placed mortuary temples on the east side (not north anymore) and the creation of the causeway and the satellite pyramids - Khufu: 2 nd king of D4, builder of the Great Pyramid at Giza, son of Snefru, boat was reconstructed - Temples - Funerary/Mortuary temple: right next to pyramids, place of worship - Funerary Enclosure: enclosed the sacred land, found throughout most of time - House of Life: temples were called Per Ankh, was the central area where records were kept, etc.
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