Branch 8 - How do cells extract energy from molecules.pptx...

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Chapter 8 Cellular Respiration
Learning Objectives Write the general equations for each metabolic pathway required to breakdown glucose to CO2. Describe the four metabolic pathways that are needed to break down glucose to CO2. Outline the basic steps of glycolysis and the net products. Describe how pyruvate is broken down and acetyl CoA is made. Describe how an acetyl CoA enters the citric acid cycle and identify the net products of the cycle. Describe how the electron transport chain produces an H+ electrochemical gradient. Explain how ATP synthase utilizes the H+ electrochemical gradient to power ATP production by chemiosmosis. Explain how carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism are interconnected. Explain how muscle and yeast cells use fermentation to synthesize ATP under anaerobic conditions. Explain why a muscle or yeast cell would use fermentation instead of respiration.
Photosynthesis Autotrophs Anabolism Endergonic Reduction of Carbon
Cellular Respiration Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Oxidation of Carbon Exergonic Catabolism
Cellular Respiration Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Oxidation Exergonic Catabolism Photosynthesis Autotrophs Anabolism Endergonic Reduction
Cellular Respiration Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Oxidation of Carbon Exergonic Catabolism
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Hydrolysis Reaction
Short-term Energy NADH FADH 2 (NAD + + H + NADH) (FAD + + 2H + FADH 2 )
Ways of Generating ATP 1. Aerobic Respiration - Uses O 2 2. Anaerobic Respiration - Uses inorganic molecule other than O 2 Commonly use sulfur or nitrogen 3. Fermentation - Electrons from NADH reduce pyruvate
Metabolism
Inhaled Air (High O 2 , Low CO 2 ) CO 2 O 2 Gas Exchange in Lungs
Oxidation and Reduction C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 + H 2 O CO 2 is reduced Glucose is oxidized Carbon is oxidized Contains low energy electrons Carbon is reduced Contains high energy electrons
Aerobic Respiration Potential energy stored in glucose
Aerobic Respiration Respiration broken into 3 steps 1. Glycolysis 2. Citric Acid Cycle (Krebs Cycle) 3. Electron Transport Chain
Aerobic Respiration Glycolysis “Break Sugar” Splits glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 ) into two pyruvate (3 carbon) molecules Occurs in cytoplasm Uses 2 ATP and produces 4 ATP + 2 NADH Net Gain = 2 2
Energy Used Glycolysis ( Energy Investment) ADP ADP Glucose G3P G3P Energy Gained + +
Glycolysis ( Energy Investment) ADP ADP Glucose G3P G3P Energy Used Energy Gained
Energy Gained Glycolysis ( Energy Harvest) G3P G3P Pyruvate Pyruvate ADP ADP ADP ADP NAD + + H + NAD + + H + Energy Used H 2 O H 2 O Substate-Level Phosphorylation Substate-Level Phosphorylation Substate-Level Phosphorylation Substate-Level Phosphorylation

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