SM_PDF_chapter14

SM_PDF_chapter14 - Superposition and Standing Waves CHAPTER...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
381 Superposition and Standing Waves CHAPTER OUTLINE 14.1 The Principle of Superposition 14.2 Interference of Waves 14.3 Standing Waves 14.4 Standing Waves in Strings 14.5 Standing Waves in Air Columns 14.6 Beats: Interference in Time 14.7 Nonsinusoidal Wave Patterns 14.8 Context Connection Building on Antinodes ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q14.1 No. Waves with other waveforms are also trains of disturbance that add together when waves from different sources move through the same medium at the same time. Q14.2 No. A wave is not a solid object, but a chain of disturbance. As described by the principle of superposition, the waves move through each other. Q14.3 They can, wherever the two waves are nearly enough in phase that their displacements will add to create a total displacement greater than the amplitude of either of the two original waves. When two one-dimensional sinusoidal waves of the same amplitude interfere, this condition is satisfied whenever the absolute value of the phase difference between the two waves is less than 120°. Q14.4 When the two tubes together are not an efficient transmitter of sound from source to receiver, they are an efficient reflector. The incoming sound is reflected back to the source. The waves reflected by the two tubes separately at the junction interfere constructively. Q14.5 No. The total energy of the pair of waves remains the same. Energy missing from zones of destructive interference appears in zones of constructive interference. Q14.6 Damping, and non–linear effects in the vibration turn the energy of vibration into internal energy. Q14.7 The air in the shower stall can vibrate in standing wave patterns to intensify those frequencies in your voice which correspond to its free vibrations. The hard walls of the bathroom reflect sound very well to make your voice more intense at all frequencies, and giving the room a longer reverberation time. The reverberant sound may help you to stay on key. Q14.8 The trombone slide and trumpet valves change the length of the air column inside the instrument, to change its resonant frequencies. Q14.9 In a classical guitar, vibrations of the strings are transferred to the wooden body through the bridge. Because of its large area, the guitar body is a much more efficient radiator of sound than an individual guitar string. Thus, energy associated with the vibration is transferred to the air relatively rapidly by the guitar body, resulting in a more intense sound.
Image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
382 Superposition and Standing Waves Q14.10 The vibration of the air must have zero amplitude at the closed end. For air in a pipe closed at one end, the diagrams show how resonance vibrations have NA distances that are odd integer submultiples of the NA distance in the fundamental vibration. If the pipe is open, resonance vibrations have NA distances that are all integer submultiples of the NA distance in the fundamental.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern