SM_chapter16 - Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases...

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437 Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases CHAPTER OUTLINE 16.1 Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics 16.2 Thermometers and Temperature Scales 16.3 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 16.4 Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gas 16.5 The Kinetic Theory of Gases 16.6 Distribution of Molecular Speeds 16.7 Context Connection— The Atmospheric Lapse Rate ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q16.1 The copper’s temperature drops and the water temperature rises until both temperatures are the same. Then the metal and the water are in thermal equilibrium. Q16.2 The astronaut is referring to the temperature of the lunar surface, specifically a 400°F difference. A thermometer would register the temperature of the thermometer liquid. Since there is no atmosphere in the moon, the thermometer will not read a realistic temperature unless it is placed into the lunar soil. Q16.3 If the amalgam had a larger coefficient of expansion than your tooth, it would expand more than the cavity in your tooth when you take a sip of your ever-beloved coffee, resulting in a broken or cracked tooth! As you ice down your now excruciatingly painful broken tooth, the amalgam would contract more than the cavity in your tooth and fall out, leaving the nerve roots exposed. Isn’t it nice that your dentist knows thermodynamics? Q16.4 The measurements made with the heated steel tape will be too short—but only by a factor of 51 0 5 × of the measured length. Q16.5 (a) One mole of H 2 has a mass of 2.016 0 g. (b) One mole of He has a mass of 4.002 6 g. (c) One mole of CO has a mass of 28.010 g. Q16.6 The ideal gas law, PV nRT = predicts zero volume at absolute zero. This is incorrect because the ideal gas law cannot work all the way down to or below the temperature at which gas turns to liquid, or in the case of CO 2 , a solid. Q16.7 Call the process isobaric cooling or isobaric contraction. The rubber wall is easy to stretch. The air inside is nearly at atmospheric pressure originally and stays at atmospheric pressure as the wall moves in, just maintaining equality of pressure outside and inside. The air is nearly an ideal gas to start with, but PV nRT = soon fails. Volume will drop by a larger factor than temperature as the water vapor liquefies and then freezes, as the carbon dioxide turns to snow, as the argon turns to slush, and as the oxygen liquefies. From the outside, you see contraction to a small fraction of the original volume.
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438 Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases Q16.8 Cylinder A must be at lower pressure. If the gas is thin, it will be at one-third the absolute pressure of B. Q16.9 At high temperature and pressure, the steam inside exerts large forces on the pot and cover. Strong latches hold them together, but they would explode apart if you tried to open the hot cooker. Q16.10 (a) The water level in the cave rises by a smaller distance than the water outside, as the trapped air is compressed. Air can escape from the cave if the rock is not completely airtight, and also by dissolving in the water.
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SM_chapter16 - Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases...

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