SM_chapter17 - Energy in Thermal Processes The First Law of...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
461 Energy in Thermal Processes: The First Law of Thermodynamics CHAPTER OUTLINE 17.1 Heat and Internal Energy 17.2 Specific Heat 17.3 Latent Heat and Phase Changes 17.4 Work in Thermodynamic Processes 17.5 The First Law of Thermodynamics 17.6 Some Applications of the First Law of Thermodynamics 17.7 Molar Specific Heats of Ideal Gases 17.8 Adiabatic Processes for an Ideal Gas 17.9 Molar Specific Heats and the Equipartition of Energy 17.10 Energy Transfer Mechanisms in Thermal Processes 17.11 Context Connection Energy Balance for the Earth ANSWERS TO QUESTIONS Q17.1 Temperature is a measure of molecular motion. Heat is energy in the process of being transferred between objects by random molecular collisions. Internal energy is an object’s energy of random molecular motion and molecular interaction. Q17.2 The T is twice as great in the ethyl alcohol. Q17.3 The final equilibrium temperature will show no significant increase over the initial temperature of the water. Q17.4 Some water may boil away. You would have to very precisely measure how much, and very quickly measure the temperature of the steam; it is not necessarily 100 ° C . Q17.5 Heat is energy being transferred, not energy contained in an object. Further, a large-mass object, or an object made of a material with high specific heat, can contain more internal energy than a higher- temperature object. Q17.6 There are three properties to consider here: thermal conductivity, specific heat, and mass. With dry aluminum, the thermal conductivity of aluminum is much greater than that of (dry) skin. This means that the internal energy in the aluminum can more readily be transferred to the atmosphere than to your fingers. In essence, your skin acts as a thermal insulator to some degree (pun intended). If the aluminum is wet, it can wet the outer layer of your skin to make it into a good conductor of heat; then more internal energy from the aluminum can get into you. Further, the water itself, with additional mass and with a relatively large specific heat compared to aluminum, can be a significant source of extra energy to burn you. In practical terms, when you let go of a hot, dry piece of aluminum foil, the heat transfer immediately ends. When you let go of a hot and wet piece of aluminum foil, the hot water sticks to your skin, continuing the heat transfer, and resulting in more energy transfer to you!
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
462 Energy in Thermal Processes: The First Law of Thermodynamics Q17.7 Write 1 000 1 1 3 1 000 1 kg 4186 J kg C C kg m J kg C C 3 ⋅° ° = ⋅° ° b ga f e j b ga f V . to find V = × 3 2 10 3 3 . m . Q17.8 (a) and (b) both increase by minuscule amounts. Q17.9 If the system is isolated, no energy enters or leaves the system by heat, work, or other transfer processes. Within the system energy can change from one form to another, but since energy is conserved these transformations cannot affect the total amount of energy. The total energy is constant.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern