Exam 1 Study Guide

Exam 1 Study Guide - Exam 1 Guide JW Astington The Child's...

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Exam 1 Guide: JW Astington, The Child’s Discovery of the Mind . Chapter 1 1. What four elements does Astington include in a ‘belief-desire” psychology? What are two other phrases used to describe these ideas about the mind? Elements: 1. Beliefs 2. Desires 3. Intentions 4. Emotions Phrases: 1. “Folk Psychology” 2. “Theory of Mind” 2. Are you convinced by Premack & Woodruff’s data on chimpanzees? What else would you like to know to understand these data better or to critique the study? No, not convincing – just because a chimp can choose a picture that suggests a solution to the problem does not necessarily mean that it understands the person’s intentions What was the other, neutral picture of? 3. Be able to describe and give examples of Piaget’s concepts of realism, animism and egocentrism. “Realism”: Endowing mental entities (thoughts/dreams/etc) with physical characteristics such as public existence. “Animism”: Endowing the physical world with mental life; giving willpower to the willless “Egocentrism”: Making no attempt to position self in the place of the hearer – talks only for self, not others 4. What 3 methodological criticisms of Piaget’s work does Astington cite? What are advantages and disadvantages of lab experiments vs naturalistic observations relevant to children’s understanding of mind? 1. Confusing/Misleading/Guiding questions that may not be understood/comprehended correctly *Reliance on verbalization – children’s ability to talk about their understanding *Presupposition of ontology adults don’t actually hold –Where do dreams come from?: implies dreams come from a place & child looks for answers to go along with this implication *Question and tasks are not placed in context that’s meaningful for child Lab Experiments: Controlled but unnatural Naturalistic Observation: Natural environment but uncontrolled
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5. What are some theoretical questions/controversies about how children come to understand mind? 1. Gradual development of understanding the mind from infancy to childhood to adolescence. 2. Fundamental changes occur at definite points Leads to Debates: 1. Children construct a theory about the mind 2. Children understand others through own experience 3. Children develop understanding through absorption of culture Chapter 2 1. Describe the 3 explanatory stances that Dennett says we can take to explain and predict behavior/action. Under what circumstances is the explanatory stance useful even for machines? 1. “Physical Stance”: Mechanical make-up 2. “Design Stance”: Predict actions by how X is designed to act/respond 3. “Intentional Stance”: Explain actions via intentionality of X Circumstance: When we don’t understand the machine 2. What is an Intentional state, in the technical (Brentano) sense? What are three levels of intentionality that we can ascribe to systems?
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