polsci study guide exam 1 - PolSci Study Guide SECTION A...

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PolSci Study Guide SECTION A MATERIAL I) What is comparative politics? A) Studying the relations between states and other political organization in international systems B) Seeking differences and similarities with respects to patterns, processes, and regularities in their political systems II) Varieties of Comparative Politics A) Specific Research Questions Consists of one place and one region, you compare with another time in that region Examples: (a) Why did the social Dem. Party lose last election? (b) How did Hussein stay in power? (c) Why didn’t a specific country develop, while looking at itself over time? B) General Research Questions Tries to collect as many examples as possible with the same event and compare them to each other. Examples (a) Why do revolutions occur? (b) Why do dictatorships turn into democracies? C) Qualitative Studies You rely on historical narrative to study a certain event or country. Study the changes over time. D) Quantitative Studies Use numerical indicators and correlate them using statistical analysis. Over years become more quantitative because more data. Appropriate conditions to use quantitative studies The data has to be available Has to be measured accurately Cost low The N-Problem – If you have a lot of factors you will need a lot of cases. Sometimes you do not have sufficient cases for how many factors you are studying. E) Longitudinal Comparisons Looking at a country or something else and comparing it to itself over time. Similar to Qualitative Studies F) Latitudinal Comparisons Compare cases to each other in different nations. Similar to Quantitative Studies (a) Scopkel “States and Social Revolutions” was an example of latitudinal ovservation. 1
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III) Cause and Effect A) When condition A gives rise to outcome B there are two ways Necessary Condition If not A, then not B (a) There has to be an event for something to happen, not always have A then B Sufficient Condition If A, then B (a) Occurrence of A in itself B will occur IV)Variables A) Dependent variable (y), changes in response to a change in the independent variable B) Independent variable (x), causes a change in the dependent variable V) The Comparative Method/Fundamental Method A) Has to do with the N-Problem, don’t have enough cases B) John Stuart Mill – Liberal – Totalitarian – “System of Logic” Made the method of agreement and method of difference Method of agreement (a) Looks for present patterns of events that repeat overtime.
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