GeoSc Study Guide - GeoSc Study Guide 1 Lecture 1 a Study...

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GeoSc Study Guide 1) Lecture 1 a) Study Geology i) Avert natural catastrophes (1) Earthquakes (2) Tsunamis (3) Volcanoes (4) Landslides (5) Hurricanes (6) Impact Craters ii) Find mineral resources (1) Ore Minerals (a) Quartz (b) Bornite (c) Copper (d) Chrystallite iii) Clean environment (1) Acid Rain (2) C02 emission (3) Global Warming iv) Who we are (1) Universe 2) Lecture 2 a) Origin of Earth i) Hubble Deep Telescope (1) Hubble’s Law (a) H o = Velocity ÷ Distance ii) Age of Universe is 13.7 Gya iii) Evolution of Stars (1) Nebula (2) Protostar (3) Main sequence star (4) Red super giant (5) Super nova explosion (6) Starts back at a nebula or turns into a neutron star or black hole iv) Solar System (1) Sun (2) Mercury (3) Venus (4) Earth (5) Mars (6) Jupiter (7) Saturn (8) Uranus (9) Neptune (10) Pluto
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v) Formation of Moon (1) After Earth forms a small planet collides with it and then debris forms around earth and after a while forms the moon 3) Lecture 3 a) The Iron Catastrophe i) Lighter material went to the outside of the earth ii) Heavier material like iron went to the center b) Factors that led to the heating of the earth core i) Accretion of planetesimals (1) Kinetic energy is converted to heat ii) Self-compression (1) Gravitational compaction of Earth is like the heating of a bicycle pump when air is compressed iii) Differentiation (1) Gravitational potential energy is converted to heat iv) Short-lived radiogenic isotopes (1) In 1 million yrs, 1 cubic cm of granite produces 20 calories c) Volcanic Outgassing Makes an Atmosphere d) An Ocean Produced by Global Rain on a Cooling Earth e) Earths Make-up i) Solid Iron Inner Core ii) Liquid Iron Outer Core iii) Mantle iv) Crust f) P-Waves i) Compression in solid and liquid g) S-Waves i) Up and down movement only in solids not in liquids ii) Can’t move through liquid iron outer core 4) Lecture 4 a) Core Composition i) O ii) Si – 8.7 iii) Al iv) Fe – 79.3 v) Mg vi) Ni – 5.0 vii)S – 6.3 b) Mantle Composition i) O - 44.7 ii) Si - 19.1 iii) Al - 1.3 iv) Fe - 4.6 v) Mg - 20.3 vi) Ni - 0.2 vii)S - 0.04
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c) Crust Composition i) O – 46.6 ii) Si - 27.7 iii) Al – 8.1 iv) Fe – 5.0 v) Mg – 2.1 vi) Ni – 0.08 vii)S – 0.03 d) Rock i) An assemblage of one or more minerals e) A mineral is crystalline. i) Ordered arrangement of atoms ii) A mineral is a homogeneous solid. iii) A mineral has a definite chemical composition.
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