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PCI Bus Architecture
2 Introduction •Introduction •History of the Bus •Performance •Plug and Play •How it works •Other types of the PCI Bus •Future of the PCI Bus •Conclusion
3 Introduction •A computer bus is used to transfer data from one location or device on the motherboard to the central processing unit where all calculations take place. •Two different parts of a Bus –Address bus-transfers information about where the data should go –Data bus-transfers the actual data
4 History •PCI(Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus is based on ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) Bus and VL (VESA Local) Bus. •Introduced by Intel in 1992 •Revised twice into version 2.1 which is the 64-bit standard that it is today. •Great feature of PCI Bus was that it was invented as an industry standard •PCI provides direct access to system memory for the devices that are connected to the bus which is then connected through a bridge that connects to the front side bus. •This configuration allowed for higher performance without slowing down the processor
5 History •The PCI Bus was originally 33Mhz and then changed to 66Mhz. •PCI Bus became big with the release of Windows 95 with “Plug and Play” technology•“Plug and Play” utilized the PCI bus concept.
6 PCI System Bus Performance •What makes the PCI bus one of the fastest I/O bus used today? •Three features make this possible: –Burst Mode: allows multiple sets of data to be sent (Kozierok, 2001a) –Full Bus Mastering: the ability of devices on the PCI bus to perform transfers directly (Kozierok, 2001c) –High Bandwidth Options: allows for increased speed of the PCI (Kozierok, 2001a)
7 How PCI Compares to Other Buses Table 1: How PCI compares to other buses (Tyson, 2004a; Quatech, 2004c) Bus TypeBus WidthBus SpeedMB/secAdvantagesDisadvantagesISA 16 bits 8MHz 16 MBps low cost, compatibility, widely used low speed, Jumpers & DIP switches. becoming obsolete PCI 64 bits 133 MHz 1 GBps very high speed, Plug & Play, dominant board-level bus incompatible with older systems, can cost more CompactPCI 64 bits 33MHz 132 MBps designed for industrial use, hot swapping/Plug & Play, ideal for embedded systems lower speed than PCI, need adapter for PC use, incompatible with older systems
8 Plug and Play •Requirements for full implementation: –Plug and Play BIOS –Extended System Configuration Data (ESCD) –Plug and Play operating system •Tasks it automates: –Interrupt Requests (IRQ) –Direct Memory Access (DMA) –Memory Addresses –Input/Output (I/O) Configuration (Tyson, 2004b)