BIOL 130 Cardiovascular System.pdf - 2019 Nada Nekrep PhD Learning Outcomes 1 Structure and function of a Human Heart b Blood Vessels 2 The purpose of

BIOL 130 Cardiovascular System.pdf - 2019 Nada Nekrep PhD...

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2019Nada Nekrep, PhD
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Learning Outcomes1) Structure and function ofa) Human Heartb) Blood Vessels2) The purpose of lymphatic system in circulation
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Cardiovascular System ComponentsHeartpump that generates pressureBlood vesselsdistribution tubes of varying diametersBloodliquid medium
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Blood vessels(100k miles!!)cells surrounded by tissue fluid = interstitial fluid (IF)exchange of substances betweenblood + cells(O2, CO2, nutrients, waste)Lungs: Oxygenation of bloodKidneys: Purification of bloodIntestine: Absorption of nutrients into bloodLiver: toxin removal + adjusting blood composition (takes aa, returns proteins)Connection with other Organ SystemsConnections…Heart~
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Functions of cardiovascular system1. Heartcontractions: generation of blood pressure BP moves blood through blood vesselsBP is a good thing!2. Blood vessels: transport blood from/to the heart (complete circuit) arteries + veins + capillaries3. Capillaries: gas exchange, nutrient/waste exchange4. Heart + Blood vessels: regulation of blood flow according to body needsTogether: contribute to homeostasis!
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Lymphatic Systemassistscardiovascular SystemCollects excessive tissue fluidsReturns it to the cardiovascular systemLymphatic VesselsStart: tissuesEnd: blood veins in the shoulders(subclavian v.)Lymph: 1.IF that has entered lymphatic vessels2.Fluid connective tissue (just like blood)3.Lower pressure = flows slower; no “pump”, moves by “muscle massage”4.Lymph vessels are more permeable (large proteins, WBC…)
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Basic sequence of BLOOD FLOWBlood Vessels&Blood Flow
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Blood Vessel Types1. Artery = transports blood away from the heartblood leaves the heart under pressure (3 layers of arterial wall)Endothelium * tissue* specialized epithelial cellsthat line blood vessels single layerof cells (lining) + BMsquamouscell shapeAneurism: blow out of arterial wallfibrousloose(elasticity!)
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2. Arteriole = small artery (barely visible)= composed mostly of smooth muscle tissue (constricts and dilates the vessel = BP control!)3. Capillaries= microscopic= endothelium only= surface area 6300 m2Every human cell is near a capillary!
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Capillary bed = network of capillariesBlood flow through them is regulated by precapillary sphinctersopen/close the beds After eating:a) capillaries open in digestive systemb) capillaries close in muscles sphincter: muscle ring that opens/closes tubes (pyloric, anal…)
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arteriovenous shuntshortcutgravity pressure affects capillariesmore tissue fluidin spaces between cellsreturns to lymphatic system(when we lay down)closed capillary bed
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