Chapter Two Notes - Chapter Two-Energy Warming the Earth...

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Chapter Two—Energy: Warming the Earth and the Atmosphere I) Energy: ability or capacity to do work on some form of matter A) Terms: 1) Matter: anything that has mass and occupies space 2) Work is done on matter when matter is either pushed, pulled, or lifted over some distance B) Potential energy: energy stored in any object, has potential to do work 1) PE = mgh a) m = mass b) g = acceleration due to gravity c) h = objects height above the ground 2) Substance also possesses potential energy if it can do work when a chemical change takes  place C) Kinetic energy: energy of motion 1) KE = 1/2mv 2   2) Heat energy: Atoms and molecules that comprise all matter have kinetic energy due to their  motion 3) Radiant energy: energy we receive from the sun 4) Temperature: measure of the average speed of the atoms and molecules a) Warm, less dense air b) Cold, more dense air D) First law of thermodynamics: energy cannon be created nor destroyed, but it can be converted E) Atmosphere and oceans contain internal energy: total energy stored in their molecules F) Heat: energy in the process of being transferred from one object to another because of  temperature differences between them 1) After heat is transferred it is stored as internal energy 2) Transferred by conduction, convection, and radiation II) Temperature scales A) Absolute zero: atoms and molecules would possess no minimum amount of energy and  theoretically no thermal motion B) Kelvin scale 1) Absolute zero: 0K C) Fahrenheit scale 1) Zero point was the lowest temperature Daniel Fahrenheit obtained with a  mixture of ice,  water, and salt 2) Used mainly in the U.S. 3) Boiling point: 212 0f 4) Freezing point: 32 0F D) Celsius scale 1) Zero point was the temperature at which pure water freezes  2) Used in most of the world 3) Boiling point: 0 oc 4) Freezing point: 100 oc
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E) Converting scales 1) 0 C = 5/9 ( 0 F - 32) 2) K =  0 C + 273 III) Specific Heat A) Heat capacity: ratio of the amount of heat energy absorbed by that substance to its corresponding  temperature rise B) Specific Heat: heat capacity of a substance per unit mass 1) Amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree  Celsius 2) Water has very high specific heat IV) Latent heat: heat energy required to change a substance from one state to another A) Evaporation is a cooling process 1) At surface of small drop of water molecules (the more energetic, faster moving ones) are  constantly escaping 2) average motion of all molecules left behind decreases temperature decreases 3) Energy lost by water is locked up with the vapor molecule as latent heat 4)
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