Chapter Three Notes - Chapter Three Seasonal and Daily...

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Chapter Three: Seasonal and Daily Temperatures I) The earth revolves around the sun and spins on its own axis A) Spins on its own axis 1) One spin/24 hours 2) Direction is counterclockwise 3) Earth is tilted 23.5 °  on its own axis  4) Half of globe is always illuminated B) Revolve around sun 1) One revolution/about 365 days 2) Average distance from earth to sun is 150 million km 3) Earth comes closer to sun in January than it does in July II) Seasons regulated by amount of solar energy received at earth’s surface A) Determined primarily by angle at which sunlight strikes the surface and how long the sun shines  on any latitude B) Solar energy that strikes earth’s surface perpendicularly is more intense than solar energy that  strikes the same surface at an angle 1) The greater the angle the more atmosphere the rays must penetrate (more it can be  scattered and absorbed) 2) Area experiencing more direct solar rays will receive more heat than same size area being  struck by sunlight at an angle C) Longer daylight hours: more energy is available from sunlight D) Northern hemisphere is tilted toward the sun in summer (June) and away from sun in winter  (December) III) Seasons in Northern Hemisphere A) Warm summer season 1) Sun is at its highest point in noonday sky directly above 23.5 °  north latitude (Tropic of  Cancer) 2) June 21: sun at noon would be directly overhead (summer solstice), astronomical first day of  summer in Northern Hemisphere 3) On June 21, more solar radiation reaches  top  of the earth’s atmosphere at the poles than  above the equator, but amount of radiation reaching earth’s surface is greatest at 30 ° N and  decreases the more we move poleward a) Amount of radiation hitting surface at poles decreases compared to amount at top of  atmosphere because: i) In northern latitudes sun is very near horizon so its radiant energy must pass through  a thick portion of the atmosphere before it reaches the earth’s surface ii) Increased cloud cover during artic summer=sunlight is reflected before reaching the  ground b) 30 ° N gets greatest amount of radiation at surface b/c: i) Major deserts of the world are centered here
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ii) Cloudless skies and drier air than at 23.5 ° N so less sunlight is scattered and  reflected before reaching the ground iii) Day length is longer iv) Sun rises in northeast, reaches higher position in sky, sets in the northwest B) Autumnal equinox: September 22, beginning of fall in Northern hemisphere 1) Sun is directly above the equator 2) Days and night throughout the world are of equal length C) Indian summer: middle of autumn, an unseasonably warm spell 1)
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