Chapter Eleven Notes - Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal...

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Chapter 11: Energy in Thermal Processes I) Internal energy (U): the energy associated with the microscopic components of a system, includes the kinetic  and potential energy associated with the random translational, rotational, and vibrational motion of the particles  that make up the system and any potential energy bonding the particles together II) Heat: transfer of energy b/t a system and its environment due to a temperature difference b/t them A) Q is used to represent the amount of energy transferred by heat b/t a system and its environment B) Units 1) Calorie: energy necessary to raise the temperature of 1g or water from 14.5 oC  to 15.5 oC 2) SI Unit: joules 3) Mechanical equivalent of heat: 1 cal = 4.186J III) Specific heat (c): if a quantity of energy, Q, is transferred to a substance of mass, m, changing its temperature  then the specific heat is: c=Q/(m Δ T) A) Specific heat of water is 4186J/kg- o C B) Depends on temperature and pressure C) The energy needed to raise the temperature of a system of mass m by  Δ T is Q=mc Δ T 1) When the temperature increases, Q is positive and energy is flowing  into  the system 2) When the temperature decreases, Q is negative and energy is flowing  out  of the system IV) Calorimetry A) Technique for measuring the specific heat for a solid or liquid B)
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