Chapter Nine Notes - Chapter 9 Solids and Fluids I Types of...

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Chapter 9: Solids and Fluids I) Types of Matter A) Solids: definite volume and shape 1) Atoms help together by electrical forces 2) Atoms located at specific positions with respect to one another and can vibrate in their positions a) Low temperature: slight vibrating motion b) High temperatures: amplitudes of vibrations increase 3) Elasticity: when external forces are removed it tends to return to its original shape 4) Types: a) Crystalline solid: atoms have an ordered structure b) Amorphous solid: atoms are arranged almost randomly 5) Resists compression B) Liquid: definite volume but no definite shape 1) Exists at higher temperature than solids 2) Intermolecular forces aren’t strong enough to keep molecules in fixed positions, molecules wander in  random fashion 3) Resists compression C) Gas: no definite volume nor shape, but can flow 1) Constant random motion 2) Molecules exert weak forces on each other 3) Average distance b/t molecules is large compared with size of the molecules 4) Can be easily compressed D) Plasma: system of charged particles interacting electromagnetically 1) Occurs when gas is heated and electrons surrounding each atom are freed 2) Allows the constituents to interact with each other 3) Found inside stars and accretion disks around black holes 4) Far more common than other states II) Deformation of solids A) Stress: force per unit area causing a deformation 1) Is proportional to strain  2) Stress = elastic modulus x strain 3) SI unit is Pascal (N/m 2 ) B) Strain: measure of the amount of deformation C) Young’s modulus: elasticity in length 1) Tensile stress: ratio of the magnitude of the external force to the cross-sectional area of the solid 2) Tensile strain: ratio of the change in length  Δ L to the original length L o a) F/A = Y Δ L/L o b) Tensile strain (F/A) is a dimensionless quantity c) Y = young’s modulus, depends on whether the material is stretched or compressed d) The change in length for a fixed external force is proportional to the original length e)
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