Test 1 Material
—assembly of atoms, major ones: carbs, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
—basic unit of life, carry out life processes, uses energy, has metabolism,
Endoplasmic reticiulum (ER)
—organelle, complex of interconnected
tubules, production of exported or organelle proteins
—have ribosomes on it, site of protein syn.
—no ribosomes, fat membrane synthesis
—series of flattened, separated tubes.
vesicles from smooth ER.
Site of protein modification, directs vesicles to
specific organelles or cell membrane
—contain digestive enzymes.
Merge with endocytotic vesicles.
Digest molecules down to usable size
—many reactions (most protective), contains anti-oxidants.
Destroys oxygen radicals
—collection of similar cells with same local function.
Stay in same place
—maintain normal physiological state, maintain concentration of
—common, used to maintain self.
Event X causes a
change away from set point, response y causes a return to the set point,
basis of homeostasis.
Imp. In blood pressure, ion concentrations, muscle
—rare but important.
Event x causes a change to a new
set point, no return.
Includes blood clotting, parturition
—1,000s of reactions.
Enzymes are protein catalysts.
proteins, energy production enzymes, storage and use of carbs/lipids
—chains of connected amino acids.
Structure determined by
mRNA from nucleus codes for protein manufacture on ribosomes.
proteins give cell non-spherical shape
—adenosine tri-phosphate, high-energy phosphate bonds that are highly
transferable, lots of energy
Glycolysis (Anaerobic energy production)
In cytoplasm and cell
Inefficient, 2 ATP per glucose are created.
NADH + pyruvate+ 2ATP, AND is recycled
Mitochondrial inner membrane
—cytochromes form electron transport
system/chain on inner membrane.
NADH creates 3 ATP, FADH
creates 2 ATP
—NADH donates electron to electron transport system,
As electrons pass, ATP made at 3 cytochromes: e
34 ATP per glucose creaed
—polymers of tubulin, provide cell stability/transport along neurons
Movement: kinesin carries molecules along microtubules, taxol
binds to and stabilizes microtubules which kills cells (used as cancer drug)
—in lung, oviducts, extensions of cell membrane with MT at core.
by dynein, MT twists, prpels muculs/ovum (like waving wheat)
—propel sperm into ovum with rotary motion