Test 1 summary - Test 1 Material Molecules-assembly of...

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Test 1 Material Molecules —assembly of atoms, major ones: carbs, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids (smallest) Cells —basic unit of life, carry out life processes, uses energy, has metabolism, removes waste o Endoplasmic reticiulum (ER) —organelle, complex of interconnected tubules, production of exported or organelle proteins Rough —have ribosomes on it, site of protein syn. Smooth —no ribosomes, fat membrane synthesis o Golgi apparatus/complex —series of flattened, separated tubes. Receives vesicles from smooth ER. Site of protein modification, directs vesicles to specific organelles or cell membrane o Lysosomes —contain digestive enzymes. Merge with endocytotic vesicles. Digest molecules down to usable size o Peroxisomes —many reactions (most protective), contains anti-oxidants. Destroys oxygen radicals Tissues —collection of similar cells with same local function. Stay in same place Homeostasis —maintain normal physiological state, maintain concentration of interstitial fluid o Negative feedback —common, used to maintain self. Event X causes a change away from set point, response y causes a return to the set point, basis of homeostasis. Imp. In blood pressure, ion concentrations, muscle reflexes o Positive feedback —rare but important. Event x causes a change to a new set point, no return. Includes blood clotting, parturition Metabolism —1,000s of reactions. Enzymes are protein catalysts. Structural proteins, energy production enzymes, storage and use of carbs/lipids Protein synthesis —chains of connected amino acids. Structure determined by genes. mRNA from nucleus codes for protein manufacture on ribosomes. Structural proteins give cell non-spherical shape ATP —adenosine tri-phosphate, high-energy phosphate bonds that are highly transferable, lots of energy Glycolysis (Anaerobic energy production) —no oxygen. In cytoplasm and cell membrane. Inefficient, 2 ATP per glucose are created. Glucose+NAD+2ADP 10 reactions NADH + pyruvate+ 2ATP, AND is recycled Mitochondrial inner membrane —cytochromes form electron transport system/chain on inner membrane. NADH creates 3 ATP, FADH 2 creates 2 ATP Oxidative phosphorylation —NADH donates electron to electron transport system, H+ follows. As electrons pass, ATP made at 3 cytochromes: e - + H + + oxygen H 2 O, 34 ATP per glucose creaed Microtubules —polymers of tubulin, provide cell stability/transport along neurons and chromosome. Movement: kinesin carries molecules along microtubules, taxol binds to and stabilizes microtubules which kills cells (used as cancer drug) o Cilia —in lung, oviducts, extensions of cell membrane with MT at core. Driven by dynein, MT twists, prpels muculs/ovum (like waving wheat) o Flagella —propel sperm into ovum with rotary motion
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Test 1 Material Phospholipids— backbone of cell membranes, located in head group. Soap-like, creates fluidity within membrane and as a whole. Not rigidly held in place but can
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This test prep was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course PSL 250 taught by Professor Denison during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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Test 1 summary - Test 1 Material Molecules-assembly of...

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