Test 2 summary - Test 2 Material Cerebellum—structure on...

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Test 2 Material Cerebellum— structure on back of brainstem that controls coordinated movements and learned movements. Frontal lobe decides what, cerebellum does it o Balance— maintains balance and controls eye movements o Coordination— connected to motor cortex and receives motor plan. Afferent input gives current muscle position. Cerebellum coordinates function with “aim”. As practice occurs motor cortex, parietal lobe, and cerebellum take over (rely less on frontal cortex to initiate) so planning is reduced and initiation of activity is faster and smoother Sleep o EEG patterns— slow wave patterns in EEG give slow wave sleep its name. EEG pattern is similar to being away during REM sleep. o Slow wave sleep— 4 stages that are each progressive deeper over a 75 minute cycle. Circadian rhythm causes increase in adenosine, which leads to sleep. Caffeine blocks adenosine response, which keeps you up. Muramyl dipeptide is a strong sleep inducer o REM (paradoxical) sleep— 15 minutes long at the end of the slow wave sleep cycle. It’s paradoxical because it is hard to be awaken but you are most likely to wake yourself. High visual cortex, low frontal, and high memory areas activities causes illogical dreams. During this time new synaptic contacts are made, which increases long-term memory. Will make up missed REM sleep. Spinal cord o Dorsal roots— backside, occur every 1inch or so. Entry points for afferent neurons to spinal cord. Afferent cell bodies are in the dorsal root ganglia o Ventral roots— frontside, carry efferent action potentials out of the spinal cord. Cell bodies of efferent neurons are in the gray matter Stretch reflex— i.e. a knee jerk, involved in muscle length information. A monosynaptic reflex in which activation of an afferent neuron produces a reflex response with no control by the upper CNS (cannot control it) Sensation/senses o Stimulus— environmental signal that binds and changes a receptor so that signal is now in the body. Each receptor binds only one stimulus best. Most receptors only produce graded potentials so they need to activate a cell with AP o Receptor potentials/generator potentials/local potentials/graded potentials— depolarization of receptor cells. Size of potential is proportional to the size of the stimulus. Receptor fields can vary in size o Phasic receptors— adapt over time, rate is variable. Touch receptors adapt quickly while pain and blood pressure receptors adapt slowly. Taste is also phasic o Tonic receptors— do not adapt over time. Few true tonic receptors. Postural receptors in trunk are near tonic Pain-- nocireceptors o Fast pain— sharp, localized, passes quickly. Fast myelinated afferents- glutamate NT
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Test 2 Material o Slow pain— diffuse, dull, long lasting. Slow, unmyelinated afferents— substance P is NT o Enkephalins/endorphins— peptides, multiple types with different sizes that lock receptors. Have a short half line (25 sec) but morphine does the same
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Test 2 summary - Test 2 Material Cerebellum—structure on...

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