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Assignment 3 Chapter 3 (The Positivist School) 1.Fully discuss the positivist school of criminology. Include the following points: the importance Lombroso as the ”father” of the school; the assumptions about society, crime, and punishment (especially the emphases on determinism and treatment/rehabilitation. The primary idea behind positivist criminology is that criminals are born as such and not made into criminals; in other words, it is the nature of the person, not nurture, that results in criminal propensities. Moreover, the positive criminologist does not usually examine the role of free will in criminal activity. In the late nineteenth century, some of the principles on which the classical school was based began to be challenged by the emergent positivist school in criminology, led primarily by three Italian thinkers: Cesare Lombroso, Enrico Ferri, and Raffaele Garofalo. It is at this point that the term ‘criminology’ first emerged, both in the work of Italian Raffaele Garofalo (criminologia) in 1885 and in the work of French anthropologist Paul Topinard (criminologie) around the same time. (Miethe, McCorkle, Listwan, 2006, p. 129)