Section 4 - CHAPTER 27 PROKARYOTES AND THE ORIGINS OF...

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1 CHAPTER 27 PROKARYOTES AND THE ORIGINS OF METABOLIC DIVERSITY Heat-loving prokaryotes in a Nevada geyser (104°C) Bubonic Plague Tuberculosis Cholera Sexually transmissible diseases Food poisoning . Some Prokaryotes Cause Diseases Spherical Rod-shaped Helical These domains differ in structure, physiology and biochemistry Prokaryotes are classified into two domains Archaea are more closely related to Eukaryota than to Bacteria! The Sizes of Prokaryotes Thiomargarita namibiensis “sulfur pearl of Namibia” (uses sulfur compounds in its metabolism) Fruit Fly
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2 Presence of a Cell Wall In nearly all prokaryotes, a cell wall maintains the shape of the cell, affords physical protection, And prevents the cell from bursting in a hypotonic environment . Cell Wall CELL WALLS CONTAIN PEPTIDOGLYCAN LARGE AMOUNTS OF PEPTIDOGLYCAN TRAP CRYSTAL VIOLET DYE LESS PEPTIDOGLYCAN IN CELL WALLS – VIOLET DYE RINSES OFF TOXIC (Usually more deadly than Gram-Positive Bacteria) Often you will get a mixture of both on one slide: Gram-negative bacteria Gram-positive bacteria Bacteria and Disease Leprosy ( Mycobacterium leprae) Cholera ( Vibrio cholerae) Typhoid Fever ( Salmonella typhi) Plague ( Yersinia pestis) Lyme Disease ( Borrelia bergdorferi) Diphtheria ( Corynebacterium diphtheriae) Bacterial Pneumonia ( Streptococcus, Mycoplasma , and others) Polysaccharide capsule around Streptococcus bacterium Bacterial Capsule
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3 Fimbriae or Pili Many prokaryotes are motile (capable of movement) - flagella Interior of Cell (Flagellin) Basal apparatus Spirillum volutans Helical filaments Chondromyces crocatus , a spore producer Taxis - Chemotaxis (neg. or pos.) - Phototaxis (neg. or pos.)
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Prokaryotes and eukaryotes are fundamentally different - In (1) Cellular organization and -in (2) Genomic organization Similar to the cristae of mitochondria Aerobic prokaryote Photosynthetic prokaryote Thylakoid membranes, similar to chloroplasts Prokaryotes have smaller, simpler genomes than eukaryotes. 0.001 of DNA of eukaryotes Plasmids Plasmids Is very similar to eukaryotes, for the most part But some of the details differ. Ribosome size, protein and RNA content Protein Synthesis in Prokaryotes Note: Tetracycline and chloramphenicol (among other selective antibiotics) can block protein synthesis in many prokaryotes! Reproduction in Prokaryotes 1) Transformation So how are genes transferred between individuals? 3 Ways! Pathogenic
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This note was uploaded on 04/02/2008 for the course GEOG 202 taught by Professor O'reilly during the Fall '07 term at Texas A&M.

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Section 4 - CHAPTER 27 PROKARYOTES AND THE ORIGINS OF...

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