Final Review - Final Review Test 1 Nutrient is a substance...

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Final Review Test 1: Nutrient is a substance that provides nourishment Essential nutrient is one where food is the only principle source, the body cannot make enough of it. Phytonutrient – compounds found in food that aren’t technically necessary for life and growth. Macronutrients- are present in the body in relatively large quantites, have daily recquirements, and are present in food in relatively large amounts Present in food in gram amounts Micronutrients – are present in the body in relatively small amounts, have daily req. that are small, and are present in food in small amounts. Present in food in mg or microgram amounts. Ex. Water carbs protein. RDA’s -“recommended dietary allowances” for protein vit. And minerals UL’s – “ Tolerable upper level of intake” for certain vitamins and minerals. DRI’s – “Dietary Reference intakes” – for fat carb and protein. Deficient – Little or no intake over weeks to year s resulting in a specific set of symptoms, known as deficiency diseases. Iron – anemia Vitamin C – Scurvey Marginal – less than optimal intake over years resulting in an increase risk for chronic disease . Cancer, heart disease - multifactorial – diet, genetics, exercise, age Over-consumption - Greater than optimal intake over years resulting in an increased risk of chronic disease . Saturated fat – Heart disease
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Excess – Much Greater than optimal intake over weeks to days resulting in a specific set of side effects (reversible -> non-life threatening) Vit C diarrhea. Toxic (irreversible – life threatening) Vit D. A liver damage. Marginal is less than or equal to 60% of the RDA - because as intake moves below this level of intake it becomes increasingly less likely that one’s needs for that nutrient are being met Excess is greater than or = to 1000% of the RDA - Because this level of intake is not likely to be reached through diet alone Total fat 20-35%o of total calories. - sat fat - < 10% Carb – 45-65% - added sugars < 25% Protein – 10-35% Fat = 9cal/g Carb = 4cal/g Amount of nutrient destroyed - length of time of the exposure - temperature - amount of water - amount of surface area exposed Frozen food- little to no nutrient loss Canning limited impact on nutrients b/c exposure to heat is very limited… just enough to kill off microbes. -some of the water soluble nutrients might be lost. DRIs -to be used by health car professionals to assess dietary adequacy of population groups or individuals -for protein, vit., min., fiber RDAs – recommendations for optimal intake
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ULs- recommendations to guard against excessive intake of micronutrients. (expressed in specific amounts g, mg.) Daily values – to be used by public to access the nutritional quality of individual food products - found on food labels only - total fat < 30% -sat fat < 10% - total carb < 60% Dietary guidelines - to be used byt the public to follow a healthy eating and exercise plan - divides recommendations up into basic categories - includes food pyramid.
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