204 PSL 8 - Synthesis of Soap - PSL 8 Synthesis of Soap Cherry Win L01 March 5 2018 TA Ben Olafsen Results Sodium Stearate Limiting reagent shortening

204 PSL 8 - Synthesis of Soap - PSL 8 Synthesis of Soap...

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PSL 8 - Synthesis of Soap Cherry Win L01 March 5, 2018 TA: Ben Olafsen Results Sodium Stearate: Limiting reagent: shortening Theoretical yield → 8.06g (1 mol / 891.45g/mol) x (306.46 g/mol) = 2.77 g Discussion A soap is a salt of a compound known as a fatty acid¹. A soap molecule consists of a long hydrocarbon chain (composed of carbons and hydrogens) with a carboxylic acid group on one end which is ionic bonded to a metal ion, usually a sodium or potassium¹. The hydrocarbon end is nonpolar and is soluble in nonpolar substances (such as fats and oils), and the ionic end (the salt of a carboxylic acid) is soluble in water¹. In this experiment sodium stearate (soap) will be created through a method called saponification (saponification)². The shortening (triglycerides) and NaOH when heated together in water, the ester groups of the triglycerides undergo a nucleophilic attack by the hydroxide to release glycerol and three molecules of long chain carboxylic acids as their sodium and potassium salts (soap)². After saponification is completed, the soap is separated from the glycerol by “salting out.” The solution is mixed with sodium chloride solution³. This electrolyte causes
the dispersed soap to coagulate and results in the final “hardened” soap product³, as shown below:

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