Articulating_Filipino_Philosophies_Origi.pdf - SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES THE PHILIPPINE COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES Articulating Filipino Philosophies

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Unformatted text preview: SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES, THE PHILIPPINE COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES Articulating Filipino Philosophies: Origins, Elements, and Influences A Research Paper in Modern Philosophy Submitted in fulfillment of the Academic Requirements for the Degree Ph. D. English By Jaime Cabrera 29 March 2016 This paper discusses the articulation of Filipino philosophy as well as the foundations, development, and influences of modern philosophy in the context of the established canons of Western philosophical tradition. CABRERA, Jaime - Modern Philosophy 1 CONTENTS CONTENTS .....................................................................................................................................................................1 LIST OF TABLES ..............................................................................................................................................................0 LIST OF FIGURES ............................................................................................................................................................2 ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................................................................................3 Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION ........................................................................................................................................4 1.1 What is Philosophy? .....................................................................................................................................4 1.2 Philosophic Criteria ......................................................................................................................................5 1.3 Guide Questions ...........................................................................................................................................6 1.4 Precision of Philosophic Language ...............................................................................................................6 1.5 Definition of Key Terms ................................................................................................................................9 1.6 Neolexia of Pilipino Terms .........................................................................................................................12 1.7 Organization of the Paper ..........................................................................................................................20 1.8 Summary ....................................................................................................................................................21 Chapter 2: ORIGINS OF FILIPINO PHILOSOPHY ........................................................................................................22 2.1 What Qualifies as Philosophical? ...............................................................................................................22 2.2 What Qualifies as National Philosophies? ..................................................................................................24 2.3 Defining Originality ....................................................................................................................................25 2.4 Defining Origination ...................................................................................................................................26 2.5 Defining Origins ..........................................................................................................................................27 2.6 Observable Behaviors ................................................................................................................................28 2.7 Historical Framework .................................................................................................................................28 2.8 What is Modern Filipino philosophy? ........................................................................................................29 2.9 Defining Principles......................................................................................................................................31 2.10 Defining Events ..........................................................................................................................................33 2.11 Repeated Defining Events ..........................................................................................................................34 2.12 Eventual Philosophies ................................................................................................................................35 2.13 Prehistoric Trigger Events ..........................................................................................................................35 2.14 Pre-Hispanic Trigger Events .......................................................................................................................36 2.15 16th Century: Early Hispanic Trigger Events ..............................................................................................38 2.16 17th Century: Middle Hispanic Trigger Events ...........................................................................................38 2.17 18th Century: Late Hispanic Trigger Events ...............................................................................................39 2.18 Pre-Modern: American Occupation Trigger Events ...................................................................................40 2.19 Summary ....................................................................................................................................................44 Chapter 3: 3.1 FILIPINO PHILOSOPHIES .........................................................................................................................46 Related Literature ......................................................................................................................................47 3.1.1 Terminology and Definitions ..................................................................................................................47 3.1.2 Existence VS Nonexistence ....................................................................................................................48 CABRERA, Jaime - Modern Philosophy 2 3.1.3 Methods & Approaches .........................................................................................................................48 3.1.4 Origination & Abstraction ......................................................................................................................50 3.1.5 Cross-Cultural Variables .........................................................................................................................50 3.1.6 Existence of Filipino Philosophies ..........................................................................................................50 3.2 Description .................................................................................................................................................51 3.2.1 Development .........................................................................................................................................52 3.2.2 Forms and Formats ................................................................................................................................53 3.2.3 Articulation ............................................................................................................................................55 3.2.4 Acquisition and Transfer ........................................................................................................................56 3.3 Classification ..............................................................................................................................................57 3.4 Formal Articulation ....................................................................................................................................57 3.5 Relating to the Self .....................................................................................................................................61 3.5.1 Sinangdápat: Filipino Principles of Idealism ..........................................................................................61 3.5.2 Sinangsigúro: Filipino Principles of Hopeful Fatalism ............................................................................62 3.5.3 Sinangmukhä: Principles of Face ...........................................................................................................64 3.5.4 Sinangdïsálä: Principles of Defensive Superiority ..................................................................................66 3.5.5 Sinang-áral: Filipino Principles of Learning ............................................................................................66 3.6 Relating to the World .................................................................................................................................68 3.6.1 Sinángtohánan: Principles of Discerning Truth ......................................................................................68 3.6.2 Sangtohánan: Filipino Philosophy of Truth ............................................................................................71 3.6.3 Sinangdugtóng: Principles of Logic ........................................................................................................72 3.6.4 Sangniwálä: Filipino Philosophy of Belief ..............................................................................................73 3.6.5 Sinámpalatáyä: Principles of Faith .........................................................................................................73 3.6.6 Sangnámpalatáyä: Filipino Philosophy of Faith .....................................................................................74 3.7 Relating to Others ......................................................................................................................................75 3.7.1 Sangnatíli: Filipino Philosophy of Survivalism ........................................................................................76 3.7.2 Sinangkisáma: Principles of Social Cooperation ....................................................................................77 3.7.3 Sinangkadûgö: Principles of Blood Kinship ............................................................................................77 3.7.4 Sinangbákä: Principles of Potential Utility .............................................................................................79 3.7.5 Sinangûsap: Principles of Communication .............................................................................................80 3.7.6 Sinang-Lámang: Principles of Calculated Humility .................................................................................81 3.7.7 Sinangdálaw: Principles of Guest Relations ...........................................................................................82 3.8 Relating to Work ........................................................................................................................................84 3.8.1 Pragmatic Phenomenology ....................................................................................................................84 3.8.2 Sinanglámang: Principles of Compromise .............................................................................................87 3.8.3 Sinanggawä at Sinanggósyo: Principles of Work and Commerce ..........................................................88 3.8.4 Sinangkábuluhan: Principle of Cost-Benefit Causality ...........................................................................89 3.8.5 Pakisáma: Conflict-Avoidance and Relationship-Building......................................................................90 3.9 Chapter 4: 4.1 4.1.1 Recapitulation ............................................................................................................................................90 MODERN PHILOSOPHIES ........................................................................................................................93 Western Origins .........................................................................................................................................93 Ancient Origins.......................................................................................................................................93 CABRERA, Jaime - Modern Philosophy 3 4.1.2 The Medieval Era ...................................................................................................................................96 4.1.3 The Age of Reason .................................................................................................................................96 4.2 World Origins .............................................................................................................................................97 4.3 Modern Philosophy in the West ................................................................................................................99 4.4 Key Concepts ............................................................................................................................................100 4.5 Summary ..................................................................................................................................................104 Chapter 5: FOREIGN INFLUENCES ..........................................................................................................................106 5.1 Typology of Philosophical Influence .........................................................................................................107 5.2 Modes of Conceptual Transfer .................................................................................................................109 5.3 Cultural Modalities of Communication ....................................................................................................110 5.3.1 Clarity and Ambiguity ..........................................................................................................................111 5.3.2 Contextual Connection and Isolation...................................................................................................112 5.3.3 Information Flow and Control .............................................................................................................113 5.3.4 Power-distance Index (PDI)..................................................................................................................113 5.3.5 Individualism and Collectivism (IDV)....................................................................................................117 5.3.6 Uncertainty Avoidance and Tolerance (UAI) .......................................................................................120 5.3.7 Masculinity and Femininity (MAS) .......................................................................................................123 5.3.8 Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation (LTO) .......................................................................................126 5.3.9 Indulgence vs. Restraint (IND) .............................................................................................................129 5.4 Degrees of Influence ................................................................................................................................132 5.5 Summary ..................................................................................................................................................132 Chapter 6: CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................................................................133 6.1 Research Goal ..........................................................................................................................................133 6.2 Scope of the Discussion ............................................................................................................................133 6.3 Origination and Description .....................................................................................................................134 6.4 Challenges of Understanding ...................................................................................................................135 6.5 Challenges of Articulation ........................................................................................................................136 6.6 The Vocabulary of Philosophy ..................................................................................................................136 6.7 Creating a New Vocabulary ......................................................................................................................137 6.8 Using Foreign Constructs for Native Thought ..........................................................................................137 6.9 Formal Filipino Philosophic Articulation ..................................................................................................138 6.10 Modern Filipino Philosophies ...................................................................................................................139 6.11 National Philosophies ...............................................................................................................................140 6.12 The Articulation of Native Philosophies ...................................................................................................141 6.13 Tools and Procedures ...............................................................................................................................143 REFERENCES...............................................................................................................................................................145 SUGGESTED READINGS ..............................................................................................................................................152 APPENDICES ...............................................................................................................................................................154 LIST OF TABLES Table 1: Five-Point Validity Criteria of Philosophic Statements ....................................................................................6 Table 2: Imprecision in Dictionary Definitions ...............................................................................................................7 Table 3: Opinion, Belief, and Mindset ...........................................................................................................................7 Table 4: Mindset, Principle, and Philosophy..................................................................................................................8 Table 5: Degrees of Mindsets in the Western Tradition ................................................................................................8 Table 6: Originating Pilipino Terms ..............................................................................................................................13 Table 7: Pilipino-English Glossary ................................................................................................................................14 Table 8: Basic Elements of Philosophical Tradition .....................................................................................................23 Table 9: Historical Framework of Filipino Philosophies ...............................................................................................29 Table 10: F...
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