Ch. 18 States and Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa.docx -...

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States and Societies of Sub-Saharan Africa-Effects of early African migrations•Agriculture and population growth-Bantu and other migrations from 2000 B.C.E.--1000 C.E.•Spread agriculture and herding throughout Africa•Displaced and/or absorbed hunting/gathering/fishing people•Iron metallurgy after 500 B.C.E. facilitated clearing more land•Yams, sorghum, and millet cultivated•Introduction of bananas after 500 C.E. caused migration and population surge-Population growth: from 3.5 million in 400 B.C.E. to 22 million by 1000 C.E.•African political organization-Kin-based society the norm (sometimes called "stateless society")•Early societies did not depend on elaborate bureaucracy•Societies governed through family and kinship groups•Village council consisted of male family heads•Chief of a village was from the most prominent family head•A group of villages constituted a district•Villages chiefs negotiated inter-village affairs-Chiefdoms•Population growth strained resources and increased conflict•Some African communities began to organize military forces, 1000 C.E.•Powerful chiefs overrode kinship networks and imposed authority and conquered•Examples: Ife and Benin-Kingdom of Kongo•Villages formed small states along the Congo River, 1000 C.E.•Small states formed several larger principalities, 1200 C.E.•One of the principalities overcame its neighbors and built kingdom of Kongo•Maintained a centralized government with a royal currency system•Provided effective organization until the mid-seventeenth century-Islamic kingdoms and empires

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