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Unformatted text preview: BIOLOGY
REFERENCE STUDY MATERIAL
for CLASS – IX CHAPTER WISE CONCEPTS, FORMULAS AND
QUESTIONS INLCUDING HOTS QUESTIONS Prepared by M. S. KUMARSWAMY, TGT(MATHS)
M. Sc. Gold Medallist (Elect.), B. Ed.
Kendriya Vidyalaya gachibowli
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - A - Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - B - DEDICATED
MY FATHER LATE SHRI. M. S. MALLAYYA Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - C - CHAPTER – 5 THE FUNDAMENTAL UNIT OF LIFE
Cell is called the fundamental unit of life.
A cell is capable of independent existence and can carry out all the functions which are
necessary for a living being. A cell carries out nutrition, respiration, excretion, transportation
and reproduction; the way an individual organism does. Unicellular organisms are capable of
independent existence which shows a cell’s capability to exist independently. Due to this, a cell
is called the fundamental and structural unit of life. All living beings are composed of the basic
unit of life, i.e. cell.
CELL THEORY (Schleiden, Schwann and Virchow):
• All living organisms are composed of one or more cells.
• The cell is the basic unit of structure, function, and organization in all organisms.
• All cells come from preexisting, living cells.
CELL SIZE, SHAPE AND NUMBER There is much variation in size, shape and number of cells in different organisms, and also in
various parts of the body. Most of the cells are only a few micrometres in diameter and are
visible only with the help of a microscope.
Cells may be spherical, spindle shaped, elongated, polyhedral or irregular in shape. The shape
of the cells is determined by the specific function they perform.
The number of cells is related to the size of the organ or body. Thus, small organisms have
limited number of cells, while the larger ones such as elephant, whale or banyan tree have a
countless number of cells.
Some organisms can also have cells of different kinds. Look at the following picture. It depicts
some cells from the human body. Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 1 - INTEXT QUESTIONS PAGE NO. 59
Q1. Who discovered cells, and how?
Answer: Cells were discovered in 1665 by an English Botanist, Robert Hooke. He used a
primitive microscope to observe cells in a cork slice.
Q2. Why is the cell called the structural and functional unit of life?
Answer: Cells constitute various components of plants and animals. A cell is the smallest unit
of life and is capable of all living functions. Cells are the building blocks of life. This is the
reason why cells are referred to as the basic structural and functional units of life. All cells vary
in their shape, size, and activity they perform. In fact, the shape and size of the cell is related to
the specific functions they perform. STRUCTURE OF CELL
A cell is made of life giving substance called protoplasm. The protoplasm is a highly organised
jelly like, viscous, semifluid, composed of molecules of various chemicals. Most of these are
organic molecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, fats, nucleic acid etc. Protoplasm is
commonly called the ‘physical basis of life’.
A plant cell consists of a cell wall and protoplast. Cell wall is absent in animal cells. Protoplast
denotes the whole of protoplasm present in a cell. It is differentiated into plasma membrane,
nucleus and cytoplasm.
Plasma membrane is a semi-permeable membrane. It is composed of bilayer of lipid and
protein. This is the outermost covering of the cell that separates the contents of the cell from its
external environment. The plasma membrane allows or permits the entry and exit of some
materials in and out of the cell. It also prevents movement of some other materials. The cell
membrane, therefore, is called a selectively permeable membrane. Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 2 - Functions of Plasma Membrane
Plasma membrane selectively regulates the entry and exit of the substances into and out of
the cell. Therefore, it is called a selectively permeable membrane or semipermeable
It provides an outer boundary to the cell and protects the cell from injury.
It allows the flow of materials and information between different organelles of the same
cell, as well as between the adjacent cells.
It provides some organic connections between the adjacent cells.
INTEXT QUESTIONS PAGE NO. 61
Q1. How do substances like CO2 and water move in and out of the cell? Discuss.
The cell membrane is selectively permeable and regulates themovement of substances in and
out of the cell.
Movement of CO2: CO2 is produced during cellular respiration. Therefore, it is present in
high concentrations inside the cell. This CO2 must be excreted out of the cell. In the cell’s
external environment, the concentration of CO2 is low as compared to that inside the cell.
Therefore, according to the principle of diffusion, CO2 moves from a region of higher
concentration (inside the cell) towards a region of lower concentration (outside the cell).
Similarly, O2 enters the cell by the process of diffusion when the concentration of O2 inside the
cell is low as compared to its surroundings.
Movement of water: Water moves from a region of high concentration to a region of low
concentration through the plasma membrane. The plasma membrane acts as a semi-permeable
membrane, and this movement of water is known as osmosis. However, the movement of water
across the plasma membrane of the cell is affected by the amount of substance dissolved in
Q2. Why is the plasma membrane called a selectively permeable membrane?
Answer: The cell membraneor the plasma membraneis known as a selectively permeable
membrane because it regulates the movement of substances in and out of the cell. This means
that the plasma membrane allows the entry of only some substances and prevents the
movement of some other materials.
Cell wall is made of cellulose. Cell wall is present only in plant cells. It is a rigid protective
covering outside the plasma membrane. Presence of cell wall in plant cells distinguishes them
from animal cells. Most of the plant cell walls are made of cellulose. The cell wall consists of three layers namely, middle lamella, primary wall and secondary wall.
The middle lamella is a thin amorphous cement like layer between two adjacent cells. Primary
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 3 - wall is the first formed wall of the cell and is produced inner to the middle lamella. The
secondary wall is a thick layer found inner to the primary wall.
Functions of Cell Wall:
Cell wall gives a definite shape to the plant cells.
It provides mechanical strength to the cell.
It protects the protoplasm against injury.
It gives rigidity to the cell.
A cell is enclosed in a membranous casing and is filled with a liquid substance which is called
the cytoplasm. There are many cell organelles in a typical cell. Some of the main structures of
a cell are as follows: The cytoplasm is the fluid content inside the plasma membrane. It also
contains many specialised cell organelles. Each of these organelles performs a specific function
for the cell.
Functions of Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm helps in intracellular distribution of enzymes, nutrients and other biomolecules
within the cell.
Synthesis of different types of biomolecules such as proteins, nucleotides, fatty acids etc.,
takes place in the cytoplasm. NUCLEUS
Nucleus is the major central structure in the cell. It is a dense spherical structure embedded in
the cytoplasm. Nucleus has a double membraned envelope called nuclear envelope. Nuclear
envelope encloses a ground substance called nucleoplasm or karyolymph. The nuclear
envelope possesses many pores called nuclear pores.
The nucleoplasm has two types of nuclear structures i) the nucleolus and, ii) chromatin. Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 4 - The nucleolus is a spherical body rich in protein and RNA. It is the site of ribosome formation.
There may be one or more nucleoli in the nucleoplasm. The chromatin is a network of fine
threads composed of genetic material DNA (Deoxyribo nucleic acid) and proteins. During cell
division chromatin is condensed into thick cord like structures called Chromosomes. The
chromosomes contain genes and each gene is responsible for one hereditary character of the
organism. Genes contain information for inheritance of features from parents to next
generation in the form of DNA molecule.
Functions of Nucleus:
i) Nucleus controls all the metabolic activities of the cell.
ii) It controls the inheritance of characters from parents to off-springs.
iii) It controls cell division.
PROKARYOTES AND EUKARYOTES
Based on the complexity of organization, especially nuclear organization, the cells
are classified into two types.
i) Prokaryotic cells.
ii) Eukaryotic cells.
The cells of Bacteria and Cyano Bacteria (blue green algae) lack a well organised nucleus and
are called prokaryotic cells. Their DNA (Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid) is not enclosed by a nuclear
membrane. They also lack membrane bound organelles. The organisms which possess
prokaryotic cells are called prokaryotic organisms or prokaryotes. They are considered to be
primitive organisms. EUKARYOTIC CELLS
The cells of all plants (except bacteria and cyano bacteria) and animals possess a well
organised nucleus and are called Eukaryotic cells. Their genetic material is enclosed by a
nuclear membrane. They possess membrane bound organelles like Endoplasmic reticulum,
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 5 - golgi body, mitochondria, plastids and vacuoles. The organisms which possess eukaryotic cells
are called Eukaryotic organisms or eukaryotes. INTEXT QUESTIONS PAGE NO. 63
Q1. Fill in the gaps in the following table illustrating differences between prokaryotic and
1. Size : generally small ( 1-10 μm)
1 μm = 10–6 m Eukaryotic Cell
1. Size: generally large ( 5-100 μm) 2. Nuclear region: _______________
_______________ and known as
3. Chromosome: single 2. Nuclear region: well defined and
surrounded by a nuclear membrane 4. Membrane-bound cell organelles absent 4. _______________
_________________ 3. More than one chromosome Answer:
1. Size : generally small ( 1-10 μm)
1 μm = 10–6 m Eukaryotic Cell
1. Size: generally large ( 5-100 μm) 2. Nuclear region: poorly defined because
of the absence of a nuclear membrane, and
is known as nucleoid
3. Chromosome: single 2. Nuclear region: well defined and
surrounded by a nuclear membrane 4. Membrane-bound cell organelles absent 4. Membrane-bound cell organelles
such as mitochondria, plastids, etc.,
are present Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) 3. More than one chromosome Page - 6 - CELL ORGANELLES
A cell performs a variety of functions such as i) Synthesis of complex molecules and their
breakdown, ii) Production of energy, iii) Secretion of certain substances, etc.. These activities
of the cell are performed by different cell organelles. These organelles are enclosed by
membranes. To understand the functioning of the cell, it is necessary to know briefly about the
structure of cell organelles.
Endoplasmic reticulum is a complicated and interconnected system of membrane bound
channels and tubules.
It is spread throughout the cytoplasm and is continuous with the plasma membrane and nuclear
There are two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum.
a) Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. (RER)
b) Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum. (SER)
Rough endoplasmic reticulum (Granular endoplasmic reticulum)
They are found in cells which synthesize proteins. This type of endoplasmic reticulum
possesses rough walls because the ribosomes remain attached with membrane of endoplasmic
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (Agranular endoplasmic reticulum)
They are found in cells which synthesize lipid. The walls are smooth and ribosomes are not
attached to its membrane. Functions of Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum (E.R) provides large surface area for the metabolic activities of the
Rough endoplasmic reticulum plays an important role in protein synthesis.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is involved in the synthesis of steroid, hormones and lipids. Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 7 - GOLGI COMPLEX OR GOLGI APPARATUS
The Golgi apparatus was first described by Camillo Golgi. Golgi complex consist of saucerlike compartments called cisternae, network of interconnecting tubules, vesicles and vacuoles
at the peripheral regions. In plant cells, Golgi apparatus is referred to as dictyosomes. Functions of Golgi Complex
Golgi apparatus is involved in the formation of lysosomes.
It is also responsible for the synthesis of cell wall and cell membrane.
Lysosomes are small membrane bound vesicles which contain various types of digestive
enzymes. These serve as intracellular digestive system, hence they are called digestive bags.
They are produced by the joint activity of Endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus. If the
membrane of Lysosome happens to get ruptured, the enzymes of Lysosome would digest the
entire cellular structure causing death of the cell. So Lysosomes are called ‘suicide bags’. Functions of Lysosomes
Lysosomes are involved in the intracellular digestion of food particles ingested by the cell
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 8 - The lysosomes of WBCs (White blood cells) destroy pathogens and other foreign particles
and thus take part in natural defence of the body.
Ribosomes are small granular structures made up of ribo nucleic acids (RNA) and proteins.
They occur free in the cytoplasm as well as attached to the outer surface of the rough
endoplasmic reticulum. Each ribosome consists of two subunits – a small subunit and a large
subunit. At the time of protein synthesis many ribosomes get attached to messenger RNA and
form a structure called polyribosome or polysome. Functions of Ribosomes
Ribosomes play an important role in protein synthesis. So they are called, ‘protein factories’
of the cell.
Vacuoles are fluid– filled sacs bound by a single membrane and are present in plant cells as
well as in certain protozoans as food vacuoles and contractile vacuoles. In plant cells, major
portion of the cell is occupied by vacuoles and are bound by the definite membrane called
Vacuoles of plants are filled with cell sap containing minerals, sugars, amino acids and
dissolved waste products. Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 9 - Functions of Vacuoles
Vacuoles store and concentrate mineral salts as well as nutrients.
They maintain proper osmotic pressure in the cell for its turgidity and absorption of water. MITOCHONDRIA
Mitochondria are globular or cylindrical organelles. Each mitochondrion is bound by two
membranes – an outer continuous membrane and an inner membrane thrown into folds called
cristae. These cristae divide the inner chamber incompletely. The inner chamber is filled with
homogenous dense material called the matrix. The cristae have pin headed bodies called F1
particles or Oxysomes which play an important role in respiration. Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 10 - The matrix of mitochondria contains enzymes necessary for the oxidation of food during
respiration and release of energy in the form of ATP molecules. Therefore mitochondria are
called power houses of the cell. The mitochondria contain proteins, lipids and a small amount
Functions of Mitochondria
Mitochondria synthesize energy rich compounds such as ATP.
Mitochondria provide important intermediates for the synthesis of several biochemicals
like chlorophyll, cytochromes, steroids, aminoacids etc.
Plastids are disc or oval shaped organelles which occur in plant cells only. Plastids are of three
types. They are Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts and Chloroplasts.
i) Leucoplasts: These are colourless plastids which store food in the form of starch, lipids and
ii) Chromoplasts: These are yellow or reddish in colour due to the presence of pigments other
than chlorophyll. Chromoplasts provide colour to many flowers and fruits.
iii) Chloroplasts: These are green coloured plastids which possess the photosynthetic pigment
chlorophyll. Each chloroplast consists of a double membraned envelope and a matrix. The inner membrane
is arranged along the length of the plastids as lamellae. At certain regions, the lamellae are
thickened and appear like pile of coins. These are called the grana. Each granum consists of
disc shaped membranous sacs called thylakoids. Inside these grana, the chlorophyll is located.
The non-thylakoid portion of the matrix is called stroma. It contains a number of enzymes
involved in photosynthesis.
Functions of Plastids: Leucoplasts are responsible for storing food; such as carbohydrates,
protein and lipid. Chromoplasts impart various colours to the plant parts. A leaf of a plant is
green in colour because of chloroplast. Chloroplast is the site of photosynthesis.
Centrosome is present in animal cells and in certain lower plants. It is absent in prokaryotic
cells and in higher plant cells. It is located near one pole of the nucleus. It contains a pair of
small, hollow granules called centrioles.
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 11 - Functions of Centrioles
Centrioles play an important role in the formation of spindle fibres during cell division. SUMMARY
STRUCTURE OF CELL HISTORY OF DISCOVERY OF CELLS
Robert Hooke was the first to discover cell (1665).
Leeuwenhoek was the first to discover free living cells in pond water (1674).
Robert Brown discovered the nucleus (1831).
Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 12 - Purkinje coined the term ‘protoplasm (1839).
Schleiden (1838) and Schwann (1839) proposed the Cell Theory. Virchow (1855) made
further addition to the cell theory.
The discovery of electron microscope (1940) made it possible to study the structures of cell
FUNCTION OF CELL MEMBRANE Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 13 - Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 14 - INTEXT QUESTIONS PAGE NO. 63
Q1. Can you name the two organelles we have studied that contain their own genetic
Answer: Mitochondria and plastids are the two organelles that contain their own genetic
material. Both these organelles have their own DNA and ribosomes.
Q2. If the organisation of a cell is destroyed due to some physical or chemical influence,
what will happen?
Answer: Cell is the smallest unit of life, which is capable of all living functions. If the
organisation of a cell is destroyed due to some physical or chemical influence, then the ability
of the cell to perform all living functions such as respiration, nutrition, excretion, etc. would be
Q3. Why are lysosomes known as suicide bags?
Answer: Lysosomes are membrane-bound vesicular structures that contain powerful digestive
enzymes. These enzymes are capable of breaking down any foreign food particle or microbes
entering the cell. Sometimes, lysosomes can cause self-destruction of a cell by releasing these
digestive enzymes within the cells. Hence, they are also known as ‘suicidal bags’.
Q4. Where are proteins synthesized inside the cell?
Answer: Ribosomes are the site for protein synthesis. Ribosomes are very small structures
found either in a free state, suspended in the cytoplasm, or attached to the surface of the
endoplasmic reticulum. They are composed of ribonucleic acids and proteins.
EXERCISE QUESTIONS PAGE NO. 66 and 67
Q1. Make a comparison and write down ways in which plant cells are different from
Answer: Differences between Plant cell and Animal cell Prepared by: M. S. KumarSwamy, TGT(Maths) Page - 15 - Q2. How is a prokaryotic cell different from a eukaryotic cell?
Answer: Differences between Prokaryotic cell...
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- Fall '16
- Biology Class