Learning Objectives:1. Calculate the water potential of a cell and predict the direction of water movement based on water potential.2. Compare the 3 water and mineral transport pathways through plant roots to the vascular tissue.3. Explain the cohesion-tension theory of water transport in the xylem.4. Describe the mechanism of stomatal opening and closing.5. Explain the pressure flow hypothesis of fluid transport in the phloem.Abscisic acid- ABA, stimulates closing of stomataAdhesion- water sticks to walls of xylem Apoplastic route- Movement through cell walland space between cells, Avoids membrane transportAquaporins- Channel proteins selective of movement of water from one side of the membrane to anotherCasparian strip- regulates water movement from root cortex into xylem, Helps keeps parasites out, Plants have immune responseCavitation- interrupts forces, Air bubbles break tensile strength, May expand and block tracheid/vessel, Dangerous to plants, Find alternative pathwaysCell wall-outside of plant cells, very hard and fibrous, prevents things from going in and out of the cell Central vacuole- an organelle used in storage of water that affects turgorEndodermis- an inner layer of cells in the cortex of a root and of some stems, surrounding a vascular bundle.Guard cells- cells that trigger opening and closing of stomata based on stimulation of malateGuttation-If root pressure increases water comes out of tipsMegapascal- what water potential is measuredinMycorrhizae- fungi that have a symbiotic relationship with the plant that increases Sieve tube element-Sink- where transported elements and materials are depositedSource- where materials that are to be transported are gatheredSolute Potential- solute concentration, as solute is added the value for potential becomes more negative, always below zeroStoma- singular of stomataStomata- holes in leaves that aide in gas exchangeSymplastic route-Utilizes plasmodesmata, Once inside can move between cells without crossing membraneTension- the state of being stretched tight.