DRAMADrama or play is a literary composition written to be performed on a stage by actors in front of an audience.TERMINOLOGYScript – the written form of a playCharacters– Characters are the people (sometimes animals or ideas) portrayed by the actors in the play. It is the characters, who move the action, or plot, of the play forward.Cast of characters – list of all the characters or players at the beginning of the script.Stage directions– Notes incorporated in or added to the script of a play to indicate the moment of a character’s appearance, character and manner; the style of delivery; the actor’s movements; details of location, scenery and effects are the stage directionsScene – It is a minor division in a play. If a play has no acts, then the play is usually divided into scenes. If a play has acts, they are the minor divisions in an act. Like acts, they usually signal a change in the theme, the situation, setting or characters.Act–It is the main division of a play. They usually signal a change in the theme, the situation, the phase of the plot, setting or characters.Doubling – One actor taking more than one part in a play.Prologue – speech or a short scene preceding the main action of the play that sets a mood and defines or defends the script.Monologue – uninterrupted speech delivered by one character in a play to other characters.Dialogue – lines of conversation spoken by characters.Soliloquy –inner thoughts of a character spoken alone on stage to explore the character’s private thoughts; often lyric in style and highly emotional. Soliloquy is very important in drama because it is the only moment that the audience directly learns the immediate thoughts and feelings of a character.Aside – The words usually spoken directly to the audience. These words are not heard by the other characters on stage. Aside may rarely take place between two characters on stage.Pathos – A quality of a play's action that stimulates the audience to feel pity for a character. Pathos is always an aspect of tragedy, and may be present in comedy as well.Poetic justice –We can call this basically as “Good are rewarded, bad are punished”. It is the fair distribution of rights in a play. However, it isusually found unrealistic.Dramatic irony–This type of irony occurs when the audience knows something that the character on stage does not know.ELEMENTS OF DRAMA1.PLOTThis is what happens in the play. Plot is the sequence of events in a play. It is the pattern that the playwright arranges for the presentation of the characters and events.An effective plot should:–maintain the interest of the audience from the beginning to–move the action on from one episode to the next–arouse interest of the audience in character–create high points or moments of crisis at intervals–create expectation and surpriseThere are four types of plot structure: triangular plot structure, open-ended plot structure, linear plot structure and circular plot structure.