test 1 review - History Describe how Robert Hooke and...

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History: • Describe how Robert Hooke and Antoni van Leeuwenhoek discovered the unseen world. Hooke - coined the term “cell” as the smallest unit of life. - Micrographia – describes the wave-like nature of light and capillary action - Confirmed th microscopic observations of van leeuwenhoekl Van Leeuwenhoek - “the Microscopist” - Built the first crude microscopes • Explain why Louis Pasteur is the “Father of Microbiology”. Pasteur - Proved the “germ Theory” that disproved spontaneous generation - He did this by taking a glass bulb and placing liquid in it. Then he placed a long tube on it and sterilized the liquid inside. Slowly dust accumulated in the bend attached to the glass and the liquid remained sterile for years. The flask was then tipped so that the microbe-laden dust cam into contact with the sterile liquid. After a very short time the once sterile liquid had microbes growing in it. - produced the first vaccine that saved boy from rabies by means of “weakened” bacteria • Describe the contributions of Robert Koch Koch - Developed experimental postulates that proved the diseases of anthrax, septicemia, tuburculosis, and cholera are caused by specific microbes - Kochs Postulates - The suspected pathogenic organism should be present in all cases of the disease and absent from healthy individuals - The suspected organism should be grown in pure culture - cells from a pure culture of the suspected organism should cause a disease in a healthy animal - The organism should be reisolated and shown to be the same as the original - Pioneered pure culture techniques in solid media - Wife formed the solid media agar- polysaccharide derived from red algae Compare and contrast the work of Martinus Beijerinck with Sergei Winogradsky. Beijernick
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- Pioneered the concept of growing microbes using enrichment culture - Isolated first nitrogen-fixing bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, sulfur oxidizing bacteria, and green algae - Discovered viruses were filterable Winogradsky - First microbial geochemist - Isolated the first nitrifying and hydrogen oxidizing bacteria - Proposed and proved microbial autotrophy chemolithotrophy • Explain contributions of Norm Pace and Carl Woese. Woese and Pace - pioneered the use of specific, shared, DNA sequences as a tool to identify and subsequently relate all living organism - Revolutionized taxonomy and phylogeny of life - Proved Darwin’s concept of the unity of life vi a “common ancestor” Short Molecules Define the major elements found in biological systems. Most Abundant - Carbon - Hydrogen - Nitrogen - Oxygen Others - Phosporous - Sulfur • Define ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonding. - Ionic Bonding –Bonds in which the electrons are not equally shared between the atoms - Na+ Cl- Mg 2+ SO4 2- - Soluble in polar solvents ex. NaCl in water - Weak ionic bonds are important in biology ex. Substrate binding to enzymes - Covalent Bonding – Formed by sharing electron pairs in which there are a defined Number of covalent bonds for each atom.
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- most common bonds in biochemicals -
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