Test Review 3

Test Review 3 - 1 Test Review 3 The Philosophy of Religion...

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Test Review 3 The Philosophy of Religion Def: Philosophy Philosophy of religion Theology Natural Theology Revealed Theology Natural Religion Theist Atheist Agnostic Agnosticism Pantheism Naturalism Does God exists Cosmological Argument HAMBOURGER A Statement of the Argument Two arguments 1) The universe must have a had a cause, for everything needs one. And what could have produced such a thing as the universe except a mighty god? ( Cosmological or First- Cause or Argument from contingency ) 2) Look at the world around you, how complex things are and how beautifully put together, from the smallest to the largest of galaxies. Surely all this could not be the result of mere haphazard chance. It must have been planned. And if so, the universe must have a designer. ( Argument from design or teleological argument ) - Believers have an easy answer to why the universe exists – because God created it. And why is it the particular universe exists rather than a different one – because God chose for things to be this way. - Atheists generally have no answer to these questions because they think that the universe did not have to exist. They may be able to explain things in terms of earlier things. Perhaps all that happened later resulted from a great cosmic explosion – “Big Bang”, which resulted from earlier events. 1
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- the problem is accepting a theory that sees that a things should come into existence from nothing, with no cause or process. - Believers think that God has no cause, but he doesn’t exist by chance, but he exists of necessity. This is a necessary truth, one that neither is accidental nor contigent upon something else. “there cannot be a universe of contingent things- that is, of things which depend on others for their existence- unless there is something that is not contingent to cause it. So since there is a universe, there must also be a non-contigent, necessarily existing, cause of it. and this cause is God.” “the heart of the cosmological argument is the charge that on the atheist view of things the universe is gratuitous, with no reason why it exists at all or is the sort of universe it is.” Anaxagoras – (500 – 428 BC) - pre-socratic greek philosopher who gave the earliest known statement of the argument Aristotle – (384 – 322 BC) - Ancient Greek Philosopher and scientist who developed the field of logic - “Prime Mover Argument” is a forerunner of the cosmological argument St. Thomas Acquinas (1225 – 1274) - Medieval Italian philosopher and theologian - known for the classical statement of the cosmological argument as well as an important statement of the teleological argument and the classic presentation of the natural law theory of ethics Gottfried Leibniz (1646- 1716) - German Philosopher and mathematician - defended the cosomological argument, his discussion of the problem of evil, and in mathematics for developing the field of calculus, at roughly the same time as, but independently of Newton. - “Theodicy”
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Test Review 3 - 1 Test Review 3 The Philosophy of Religion...

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