Psych � Drugs and Behavior Notes

Psych � Drugs and Behavior Notes - Psych Drugs and...

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Psych – Drugs and Behavior Notes Part II The Addiction Process – 2 Parts 1) Chronic, compulsive use of a drug 2) Use in the face of negative consequences Three Phases of Addiction Phase 1 -A person tries a drug -Decides if they like it or not -Individual differences in response Phase 2 -More and more direct use of the drug Phase 3 -Addiction -High probability of relapse -Drug therapy doesn’t work very well -Craving for the drug Tolerance -Downregulation of receptors -Occurs from continuous exposure Sensitization/Reverse Tolerance -Increase effectiveness of a drug with periodic use -Rats repeatedly given amphetamines, effects grew stronger -Possibly due to upregulation of receptors Placebo is a form of conditioning Implosive Therapy -A form of desensitization -Metabolic changes in the brain Louis Baxter -UCLA/Alabama -Both SSRIs and psychotherapy cause changes in the brain Somatic -refers to physically evident signs Physiological Addiction vs. Psychological Addiction
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Heroin Withdrawal -Physiologically Addictive: obvious somatic signs -Diarrhea -Cold turkey hair/piloerection Cocaine Withdrawal -no medical/physiological signs -depression -“Psychological Addiction” Food/Sex/Video Game/Gambling Addiction -characterized by compulsive use in the face of negative consequences Drugs only temporally removes craving; it’s no longer pleasureable Glutamate -Major excitatory transmitter -Only one glutamate -Many glutamte receptor GLURs (Glutmate Receptors) Ionotropic -NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) -AMPA -Kainate (Kainic acid) Metabotropic These chemicals don’t naturally exist in the brain Light and Cocaine Conditioning -Classical conditioning -Light (CS) -Cocaine (US) -Light produces effects of cocaine (CR) Light could cause the release of dopamine Primary Reward -Unconditioned Stimulus -Good when you first try it -Sex/Food Secondary Reward/Conditioned Reward -Neutral stimulus conditioned to release glutamate
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LTP (Long-Term Potentiation) -Strengthening the synapse by upregulation of glutamate receptors -Last for hours, days -May be the basis for long-term memory Tetanus -Period of overstimulation NMDA Receptors
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