Exam Review.docx - EXAM REVIEW CHAPTER 1 PSYCHOLOGY – THE EVOLUTION OF A SCIENCE William James approach to psychology by relating the mind to the


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EXAM REVIEW CHAPTER 1: PSYCHOLOGY – THE EVOLUTION OF A SCIENCE William James approach to psychology by relating the mind to the brain James approach functionalism: study of purpose mental processes serve in enabling people to adapt to environment Hippocampus involved in memory, amygdala involved in fear Physiology: study of biological processes, especially in human body Helmholtz developed method for measuring speed of nerve impulses, applied stimulus: sensory input from environment. Difference between reaction times allows to estimate how long took a nerve impulse to travel to brain Consciousness: person’s subjective experience, sight, sounds, tastes, smells, bodily sensations, thoughts, feelings Wundt structuralism: analysis of basic elements that constitute mind Retaining new information o Rehearse: repeat information o Interpret: think about meaning and reflect on significance, new information relate to something you already know o Build: thin about and review information o Test: testing yourself on information o Hit main point o Organize o Sleep on it Unconscious: part of mind, operates outside conscious awareness, influences conscious thoughts, feelings, and actions Psychoanalytic theory: emphasizes importance of unconscious mental processes shaping thoughts, feelings and actions Psychoanalysis theory: focuses bringing unconscious material into conscious awareness Watson, purposed behaviourism: focus entirely on behaviour of people Pavlov carried out research on physiology of digestion Pavlov, sound tone was stimulus (sensory input from environment) influenced salivation of dogs, which was a response (action or physiological change elicited by stimulus) Behaviourism call stimulus-response Watson and Rayner, “Little Albert” strong fear of a harmless white rat Skinner developed new behaviourism, animals act on environments, find shelter, food, mates Skinner built chamber called Skinner Box, lever and food, hungry rat, food delivered by pressing lever Behaviourism allowed psychologists to measure, predict, and control behaviour
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Lashley and Watson developed physiological psychology area behavioural neuroscience approach to psychology that links psychological processes to activities in the nervous system and other bodily processes Left hemisphere involved in language Deaf from birth, learn Sign Language, rely on region right and left hemisphere using ASL People normal hearing learned ASL, rely only on left hemisphere using ASL Right hemisphere, limited until puberty Cognitive neuroscience field that attempts understands links between cognitive processes and brain activity Culture refers, values, traditions, and beliefs shared by group of people Cultural psychology: study how cultures reflect and shape psychological process CHAPTER 2: METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY Empiricism is the essential element of the scientific method, which is a procedure for finding truth by using empirical evidence
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