TOPIC2 ELECTROSTATIC fIELDS3.doc - TOPIC 2 Electrostatic Fields TOPIC 2 ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS Coulomb’s Law Gauss’ Law Electric Field Intensity

TOPIC2 ELECTROSTATIC fIELDS3.doc - TOPIC 2 Electrostatic...

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TOPIC 2: ELECTROSTATIC FIELDS Coulomb’s Law, Gauss’ Law, Electric Field Intensity, Electric Flux Density, Electrostatics field in dielectric materials, Energy in Electrostatic fields, Laplace and Poisson Equation.
TOPIC 2: Electrostatic Fields Topic to be covered: Coulomb’s Law, Charge and Charge Density Electric Field Intensity Electric Flux Density Electrostatics field in dielectric materials Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations 2.0: ELECTROSTATIC FIELD INTRODUCTION Understanding of the concepts of electric and magnetic fields is a basic to the study of the electromagnetic fields theory. In this topic, we shall first study these concepts from considerations of the experimental laws of Coulomb. We shall learn the principles of electrostatic force and the interaction of the point charges in a medium. In this topic, we also learn on how to compute the electrostatic forces due to charge distributions in free space or a certain medium. Unit vector will be applied in the situation to show the direction of the force, and indirectly to expose the reader on the understanding of the repulsion and the attraction of the point charges. Apart from that, there are several concepts to be discussed in this topic included electric fields intensity, electric flux density etc. We begin our study of electrostatics by investigating the two fundamental laws governing electrostatic fields; Coulomb’s Law and Gauss’s Law. Both of these laws are based on independent experimental studies. 2.1 Electrical Charge, Q Charge is an electrical quantity that always be denoted by symbol Q. The International system of Units which we shall use throughout in this course for the unit of charge is coulomb, C. Any material body may be charged positively or negatively or may possess Page 1
TOPIC 2: Electrostatic Fields no net charge. There are two types of charges; positive and negative charge. Any stable material has equal amount of negative and positive charges. Material that loses negative charges The charge of an electron is -1.60219 x 10 -19 C. A charge of one negative coulomb is represented by approximately 6.24 x 10 18 electrons. Coulomb’s Law Coulomb’s Law has been discovered by Charles Augustin de Coulomb in 1975. It deals with the force a point charge exerts on another point charge. Experiments conducted by Coulomb showed that the following hold for two charged bodies that are very small size compared to their separation so that they can be considered as ‘point charge’. The characteristics of electrostatic force F experienced by point charges in a medium can be explained by the following statements; 1. The magnitude of the electrostatic force is proportional to the product of the magnitudes 2 1 Q Q of the charges.

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