Chemistry 2: Biochemistry Simple Concept Map: one idea of how to study
Biological Macromolecules (Biochemistry) • Molecules out of which organisms are made. Macro = large. • Contain carbon. • Most are polymers. • Polymer: larger assembly of repeated simpler subunits ( monomers ). Biological macromolecules are typically polymers. • Four major types. Overview table.
Type Monomer Functions Examples Carbohydrates -Simple Sugars (monosaccharides) e.g., glucose -Structural -Energy storage -starch -cellulose -glycogen -chitin Lipids -Fatty acids -Others -Structural -Energy storage -triglycerides -phospholipids -steroids -waxes Proteins -Amino acids 20 types -Enzymes -Structural -Energy storage -Movement -hemoglobin -lactase -keratin -collagen Nucleic Acids -Nucleotides 5 types -Information storage -Energy transfer -DNA -RNA -ATP
How Biological Molecules Are Assembled or Disassembled Two Reactions 1. Dehydration (Synthesis) Reaction 2. Hydrolysis Reaction
Dehydration Synthesis Reaction “removing water to build” water is released • Process by which monomers are bonded together by the removal of a water molecule to build a polymer. • Building process that requires energy input to form high energy bonds. • fructose + glucose sucrose + water Enzyme Controlled
Hydrolysis Reaction “splitting with water” water is a reactant • Process by which polymers are broken down into monomers by adding water molecules. • Breaking high energy bonds to release energy. • sucrose + water glucose + fructose Enzyme Controlled
Four Categories of Biological Macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids
1. Carbohydrates:Three Major Types 1. Monosaccharides: simple sugars. Consist of one molecule. Example is glucose (it is the universal fuel used by cells in most life forms). 2. Disaccharides: double sugars. Consist of two monosaccharides bonded together. Example is sucrose (glucose + fructose). 3. Polysaccharides: complex sugars. Consist of many monosaccharides bonded together.
Four Examples of Polysaccharides Energy Storage 1. starch : plants, glucose monomers. 2. glycogen : animals, glucose monomers. Structural 3. cellulose: plants, glucose monomers. 4. chitin: animals (and fungi), monomers of glucose with nitrogen tacked on. Know these well.
Polysaccharides: Starch • Energy storage molecule in plants. • Polymer of glucose monomers. • Made of many, long, straight chains. • May be metabolized by many organisms.
Polysaccharides: Cellulose • Structural molecule in plants, found in cell walls. • Polymer of glucose monomers. • Made of many, long, straight chains. • Few organisms have enzyme cellulase, and so few can metabolize cellulose.
- Fall '19
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