3 Bio 100 Biochemistry.ppt - Chemistry 2 Biochemistry Simple Concept Map one idea of how to study Biological Macromolecules(Biochemistry • Molecules

3 Bio 100 Biochemistry.ppt - Chemistry 2 Biochemistry...

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Chemistry 2: Biochemistry Simple Concept Map: one idea of how to study
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Biological Macromolecules (Biochemistry) Molecules out of which organisms are made. Macro = large. Contain carbon. Most are polymers. Polymer: larger assembly of repeated simpler subunits ( monomers ). Biological macromolecules are typically polymers. Four major types. Overview table.
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Type Monomer Functions Examples Carbohydrates -Simple Sugars (monosaccharides) e.g., glucose -Structural -Energy storage -starch -cellulose -glycogen -chitin Lipids -Fatty acids -Others -Structural -Energy storage -triglycerides -phospholipids -steroids -waxes Proteins -Amino acids 20 types -Enzymes -Structural -Energy storage -Movement -hemoglobin -lactase -keratin -collagen Nucleic Acids -Nucleotides 5 types -Information storage -Energy transfer -DNA -RNA -ATP
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How Biological Molecules Are Assembled or Disassembled Two Reactions 1. Dehydration (Synthesis) Reaction 2. Hydrolysis Reaction
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Dehydration Synthesis Reaction “removing water to build” water is released Process by which monomers are bonded together by the removal of a water molecule to build a polymer. Building process that requires energy input to form high energy bonds. fructose + glucose sucrose + water Enzyme Controlled
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Hydrolysis Reaction “splitting with water” water is a reactant Process by which polymers are broken down into monomers by adding water molecules. Breaking high energy bonds to release energy. sucrose + water glucose + fructose Enzyme Controlled
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Four Categories of Biological Macromolecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids
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1. Carbohydrates:Three Major Types 1. Monosaccharides: simple sugars. Consist of one molecule. Example is glucose (it is the universal fuel used by cells in most life forms). 2. Disaccharides: double sugars. Consist of two monosaccharides bonded together. Example is sucrose (glucose + fructose). 3. Polysaccharides: complex sugars. Consist of many monosaccharides bonded together.
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Four Examples of Polysaccharides Energy Storage 1. starch : plants, glucose monomers. 2. glycogen : animals, glucose monomers. Structural 3. cellulose: plants, glucose monomers. 4. chitin: animals (and fungi), monomers of glucose with nitrogen tacked on. Know these well.
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Polysaccharides: Starch Energy storage molecule in plants. Polymer of glucose monomers. Made of many, long, straight chains. May be metabolized by many organisms.
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Polysaccharides: Cellulose Structural molecule in plants, found in cell walls. Polymer of glucose monomers. Made of many, long, straight chains. Few organisms have enzyme cellulase, and so few can metabolize cellulose.
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