CHM111_Ch1_F19.pdf - Chemistry 111 General Chemistry I Dr Furqan Sami [email protected] Fall 2019 Chapter 1 Essentials Ideas Objectives Studying Chemistry

CHM111_Ch1_F19.pdf - Chemistry 111 General Chemistry I Dr...

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Chemistry 111 General Chemistry I Dr. Furqan Sami [email protected] Fall 2019
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Chapter 1: Essentials Ideas Studying Chemistry How and Why Chemistry in Context Phases and Classification of Matter Physical and Chemical Properties Measurements Measurement Uncertainty, Accuracy, and Precision Mathematical Treatment of Measurement Results 2 Objectives
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Attempts to understand the behavior of matter extend back more than 2500 years. Greeks: Matter consists of four elements; earth, air, fire, and water. Alchemists attempted to transform “base metals” into “noble metals”. Matter Composition - what is it made of? What kinds of atoms and how many? Structure - how is it organized? How are the atoms bound to each other? Properties what characteristics does it have based on its composition and structure and how does this affect its function? Reactions Changes that occur in or to matter 3 CHEMISTRY: A STUDY OF MATTER AND REACTIONS
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WHAT IS MATTER, AND WHY DOES IT MATTER? Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass; exists in three states: solid, liquid, gas All matter is comprised of atoms each element is made up of one type of atom Atoms can combine/join to form molecules What kinds of atoms? In what quantities? Composition and structure of molecules explains properties of the molecules and the reactions caused by them 4
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CHEMISTRY THE CENTRAL SCIENCE Chemistry is interconnected to a vast array of other STEM disciplines. 5
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CHEMISTRY AND EVERYDAY LIFE Examples of chemistry in everyday life: Digesting food Synthesizing polymers for clothing, cookware, and credit cards Refining crude oil into gasoline and other products And much more… As you proceed through this course, you will discover: Many different examples of changes in the composition and structure of matter. How to classify these changes in matter and understand how they occur. The changes in energy that accompany these changes in matter. 6
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How do we do chemistry? The Scientific Method Chemists often formulate a hypothesis a tentative explanation of observations. The laws of science summarize a vast number of experimental observations, and describe or predict some facet of the natural world. Chemistry is a science based on observation and experimentation. Theory - A well-substantiated, comprehensive, testable explanation of a particular aspect of nature. Hypothesis Measurement/Experiment Theory refute hypothesis confirm hypothesis Observation
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8 THE DOMAINS OF CHEMISTRY a) The macroscopic domain is familiar to us: It is the realm of everyday things that are large enough to be sensed directly by human sight or touch.
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