PSYLIFE_lectureppt_CH02_20171215.pptx - Sarah Grison • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life SECOND EDITION Chapter 2 The Role of Biology in

PSYLIFE_lectureppt_CH02_20171215.pptx - Sarah Grison •...

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Psychology in Your Life Chapter 2 The Role of Biology in Psychology SECOND EDITION Sarah Grison • Michael Gazzaniga © 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 1
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2.1 How Do Our Nervous Systems Affect Thinking and Behavior? Nervous system A network of billions of cells in the brain and the body, responsible for all aspects of what we feel, think, and do 2
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2.1 How Do Our Nervous Systems Affect Thinking and Behavior? (1) The nervous system has three basic functions 1. Receive sensory input from the world through vision, hearing, touch, taste, and smell 2. Process the information in the brain by paying attention to it, perceiving it, and remembering it 3. Respond to the information by acting on it 3
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2.1 How Do Our Nervous Systems Affect Thinking and Behavior? (2) Central nervous system The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and the spinal cord Peripheral nervous system The part of the nervous system that enables nerves to connect the central nervous system to the muscles, organs, and glands 4
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2.1 How Do Our Nervous Systems Affect Thinking and Behavior? (3) 5
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Neurons Are the Basic Units of Our Nervous Systems (1) Neurons The basic units of the nervous system: Cells that receive, integrate, and transmit information in the nervous system. Neurons operate through electrical impulses, communicate with other neurons through chemical signals, and form neural networks 6
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Neurons Are the Basic Units of Our Nervous Systems (2) 7
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Neurons Are the Basic Units of Our Nervous Systems (3) Structure of neurons Dendrites: Branchlike extensions of the neuron with receptors that detect information from other neurons Cell body: The part of the neuron where information from thousands of other neurons is collected and integrated 8
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Neurons Are the Basic Units of Our Nervous Systems (4) Axon: The long, narrow outgrowth of a neuron that enables it to transmit information to other neurons Synapse: The site of communication between neurons through neurotransmitters 9
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Neurons Are the Basic Units of Our Nervous Systems (5) 10
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Action Potentials Allow Neurons to Communicate With Each Other (3) Action potentials Myelin sheath Fatty layer that insulates the axon To communicate, a neuron fires an action potential A neuron cannot fire just a little bit: It either fires or it does not 11
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Action Potentials Allow Neurons to Communicate With Each Other (4) Neurotransmitters in the synapse Neurons do not touch one another; instead, they communicate chemically at the synapse Neurotransmitters: Chemical substances that carry signals from one neuron to another Receptors are specialized sites that specifically respond to certain types of neurotransmitters 12
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Neurotransmitters Influence Our Mental Activity and Behavior (2) 13
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Neurotransmitters Influence Our Mental Activity and Behavior (3) Acetylcholine Motor control over muscles Attention, memory, learning, and sleeping Epinephrine Energy Formerly called adrenaline Norepinephrine Arousal and alertness 14
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