Jatin- Ecampaign (1).docx - Q1 Describe the structure and function of the causative microorganism for infectious outbreak with its pathogenicity and

Jatin- Ecampaign (1).docx - Q1 Describe the structure and...

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Q1 Describe the structure and function of the causative microorganism for infectious outbreak with its pathogenicity and virulence; Structure and Function of Influenza. Influenza virus belongs to the family of Orthomyxoviridae . Influenza A virus (IAV) along with influenza B virus causes respiratory illness. Influenza virus are single stranded negative sense segmented RNA virus with a genome having eight gene segments of RNA virus, with a genome consist of 8 gene segments’ that may combine up to sixteen proteins. Influenza viruses are divided into subtype based on the genetic and antigenic properties of their envelope glycoproteins. Hemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA). Till date there are 17HA and 10 NA subtypes have been identified. The HA glycoprotein of influenza viruses is initially synthesized as a single polypeptide precursor(HAO), which needs to be cleaved into HA1 and HA2 subunits by cellular protease to become biologically active. Pathogenecity Highly pathogenic influenza virus is H5N1 influenza viruses (HPAIV), it is preferably renowned as alpha2-3 sialylated glycans and primarily they infect type 2 pneumocyte in lings of humans. So in humans often cause pneumonia due to HPAIV infection, as they primary targets cells of HPAIV which are deep in lower respiratory tract, Its quite difficult for HPIAV to cause widespread infection in humans. Mutation in the HAs od H5N1 viruses confer upon mutants the ability to bind alpha2-6 and alpha2-3 sialylated glycans. In the cause of influenza A, a D222G substitution in HA that was observed in severe fatal cases change. The receptor binding specificity of the virus from alpha2-6 to alpha2-3 sialylated glycans. Tracheobronchial epithelial cells of human culture showed that influenza with the D222G substitution in its HA could be responsible to infect ciliated bronchial cells. Severity of pneumonia may be increased by HA mutation. So
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  • Summer '18
  • Gina Valache

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