--Evaluation_of_freshwater_toxicity.pdf - Philippine Journal of Science 136(2 173-179 December 2007 ISSN 0031 7683 Evaluation of Freshwater Toxicity

--Evaluation_of_freshwater_toxicity.pdf - Philippine...

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Philippine Journal of Science 136 (2): 173-179, December 2007 ISSN 0031 - 7683 Suprakash Kar * and A. K. Aditya 1 *Corresponding author: [email protected] *Sainthia High School, P.O. -Sainthtia, Dist.-Birbhum, West Bengal, Pin-731234, India 1 Department of Zoology (DSA-UGC, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan, India 173 Evaluation of Freshwater Toxicity with Hydra as a Test Animal INTRODUCTION Water is an essential natural resource required for all life activities and ecological functions. It is used by man for irrigation, navigation, industries, electricity generation, and a variety of domestic and commercial purposes. But water quality is continuously degraded by the activities of modern civilization mainly through industrial effluents and agriculture pesticides The regular entry of pesticidial and industrial pollutants into the natural resources eventually causes physical, chemical, and biological deterioration of the water when its natural purifying capacity is exceeded. In India, the problem has assumed an acute phase due to unawareness of most farmers about the hazardous effects of pesticides that they use regularly. For quick The emphasis in assessing pollution in freshwater ecosystem has been demonstrated with hydra, a freshwater solitary polyp of Cnidaria. It yields a unique plasticity in auto-regenerating, cell replacement, and cell renewal system. Heavy metal Cadmium is an extremely potential toxic element for living and even a very minute dose (0.5 ppm) of Cadmium-chloride can initiate noticeable damage to the body organization of hydra within a short time. Two methods have been employed in measuring the toxicity of hydra. One is the determination of median lethal concentration (LC50) of Cadmium-chloride by Probit Analysis method, while the second one involves the progressive changes in morphological structures through scoring procedures. The second method is more accurate in determining the lethal toxicity. Rural people may use this method for detection in toxicity hazards in freshwater more easily and precisely without having any statistical knowledge. Key words: Hydra, ecosystem, heavy metal, progressive change, toxicity control measures, they frequently use these pesticides above the recommended dose resulting in adverse effects on environment and its associated biota. On the other hand, the continuous discharge of effluents containing non-essential heavy metals and their chemical compounds at an unprecedented and constantly increasing rate, even beyond permissible level from various industries into adjoining aquatic milieu might result in accumulation, and subsequent magnification to dangerous level because of their toxicity, water solubility, longevity, and non-degradable nature. Aquatic life is strongly influenced by physical and chemical properties of water body. It is known that heavy metals and pesticides are potentially harmful to aquatic lives.
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