PSYLIFE_lectureppt_CH13_20171215.ppt - Sarah Grison • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life SECOND EDITION Chapter 13 Self and Personality 1 ©

PSYLIFE_lectureppt_CH13_20171215.ppt - Sarah Grison •...

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Chapter 13 Self and Personality © 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Sarah Grison • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life Psychology in Your Life SECOND EDITION 1
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13.1 How Do We Know Ourselves? Personality The characteristic thoughts, emotional responses, and behaviors that are relatively stable in an individual over time and across circumstances 2
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Our Sense of Self Is Who We Believe We Are Each of us has a notion of something we call the self, but the self is difficult to define For college students, the sense of self typically includes Gender Age Student status Interpersonal style (e.g., shy, friendly) Personal characteristics (e.g., moody, optimistic) Body image (e.g., positive, negative) 3
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Our Sense of Self Is Who We Believe We Are Self-schema An integrated set of memories, beliefs, and generalizations about the self Researchers typically observe activity in the middle of the frontal lobes of the brain when people process information about themselves 4
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Our Sense of Self Is Who We Believe We Are 5
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Our Sense of Self Is Who We Believe We Are Working self-concept Reflects how people think of themselves at a given moment Research respondents are especially likely to mention features such as ethnicity, gender, or age if they differ in these respects from other people around them at that moment 6
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Our Sense of Self Is Who We Believe We Are 7
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Our Sense of Self Is Who We Believe We Are Self-esteem The affective aspect of the self Many theories propose that self-esteem is based on how we believe others perceive us This view is known as reflected appraisal 8
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Our Sense of Self Is Who We Believe We Are Sociometer theory Self-esteem is a sociometer, an internal monitor of social acceptance or rejection When our sociometer indicates a high possibility of rejection, we experience low self-esteem When our sociometer indicates a low probability of rejection, we tend to experience high self-esteem 9
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Our Sense of Self Is Who We Believe We Are 10
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Our Sense of Self Is Who We Believe We Are Self-esteem and life outcomes Evidence from psychology indicates that self- esteem may be less important than is commonly believed A review of several hundred studies found that although people with high self-esteem report being much happier than others, self-esteem is weakly related to objective life outcomes 11
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Our Sense of Self Is Who We Believe We Are One characteristic associated with inflated self-esteem is narcissism An analysis of many studies found increasing narcissism among American college students between 1979 and 2006 Even though we might encourage children to have high self-esteem, there is a tendency for self-esteem to fall during adolescence and be at its lowest for people, especially young women, aged 18 to 22 years 12
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We Try to Maintain a Positive Sense of Self Better-than-average effect According to research, most people have positive illusions—that is, overly favorable and
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