Anthro Study Guide exam 1.pdf - Anthropology:​ the study of humans and our close biological relatives the Primates Subfields 1 Sociocultural

Anthro Study Guide exam 1.pdf - Anthropology:​ the study...

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Anthropology: the study of humans and our close biological relatives, the Primates Subfields: 1. Sociocultural Anthropology: study of human cultural adaptation 2. Archaeology: study of past human cultures through their material remains 3. Linguistic Anthropology: Language origins, relationship between language and culture 4. Physical (Biological) Anthropology: study of human (and non-human primate) biology, within a framework of evolution, and human biocultural variation Human Biology: Study of modern human genetic and phenotypic (physical) variation (biocultural variation) Primatology: Study of our close biological relatives, the Primates Forensic Anthropology: Identification of human remains Paleopathology: The study of ancient disease Paleoanthropology: Study of primate and human evolution Hominins : modern humans and their bipedal (upright walking) ancestors Physical Anthropology is a Scientific Discipline • A method of discovery that results in a body of knowledge Paradigm : the generally accepted perspective/belief on a subject at a given time Fixity of Life • God created everything as it currently exists • No extinctions • No new creations • And it all happened a very short time ago ---- It means that most species haven't changed genetically over a long period of time. Basically the concept is that most animals, organisms and eukaryotic/prokaryotic cells remained a constant and that all physical matter/energy remained unchanged, no evolution, entropy, exc. The Great Chain of Being- a strict, religious hierarchical structure of all matter and life, believed to have been decreed by God . Archbishop James Usher (1580-1656)- recognized that humans had more history than 1000 years which is what it says in the book of Genesis. - "Young Earth" - prolific scholar, who most famously published a chronology that purported to establish the time and date of the creation as the night preceding Sunday, 23 October 4004 BC Evolution : Change through time from one species to another through the natural selection of individual variation Historical barriers to the idea of evolution 1) recognize that humans have an ancient past 2) recognize that natural processes lead to change in natural systems (including life) 3) time and change
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Events leading to the paradigm shift 1. Scientific Revolution: Development of Scientific Method, invention of new technologies 2. Age of exploration: discovery of previously unknown life forms, true understanding of life’s diversity 3. Discovery of Apes: links humans to the rest of nature 4. Discovery of remains of creatures no longer in existence / extinct (fossils) Andreas Vesalius(1514-1564)- “ comparative anatomy”- referred as founder of human anatomy John Ray (1628-1705) - developed the concept of species and genus Natural theology - wisdom of God understood by studying the features of his Creation Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778) - developed method of classifying animals - standardized John Ray's use of genus and species and established the system
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