PSYLIFE_lectureppt_CH03_20171215.pptx - Sarah Grison • Michael Gazzaniga Psychology in Your Life SECOND EDITION Chapter 3 Consciousness 1 © 2016 W W

PSYLIFE_lectureppt_CH03_20171215.pptx - Sarah Grison •...

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Psychology in Your Life SECOND EDITION Chapter 3 Consciousness © 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Sarah Grison • Michael Gazzaniga 1
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3.1 What Does It Mean to Be Conscious? Because of the very nature of consciousness, conscious experiences differ from person to person 2
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Consciousness Is a Subjective Experience Consciousness The combination of a person’s subjective experience of the external world and the person’s mental activity; this combination results from brain activity Most psychologists reject dualism for materialism, the idea that the brain and the mind are inseparable and that the processing of the brain allows for the experiences of the mind 3
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There Are Different Levels of Consciousness When we are fully conscious, we are very alert Have you ever begun daydreaming while reading and then realized you had no idea what you had just read? You were going through the motions of reading, but you were essentially unconscious of what you read 4
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Unconscious Processing Sometimes Affects Behavior Subliminal perception The processing of information by sensory systems without a person’s conscious awareness Though material presented subliminally can influence how people process information, it has little or no effect on complex thinking and actions 5
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Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness (1) Psychologists examine and even measure consciousness and other mental states once considered too subjective to be studied Psychology is beginning to reveal how brain activity may give rise to specific subjective experiences 6
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Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness (2) Global workspace model Consciousness is a product of activity in specific brain regions The key idea of the global workspace model is that no single area of the brain is responsible for general “awareness” 7
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Brain Activity Gives Rise to Consciousness (3) 8
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3.2 How Does Sleep Affect Consciousness? People commonly think that the brain shuts itself down during sleep, but in fact, many brain regions are more active when we are asleep than when we are awake 9
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Sleep Is Part of the Normal Rhythm of Life (1) Circadian rhythms The regulation of biological cycles into regular, daily patterns Changes in light register in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, which triggers the production of melatonin 10
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Sleep Is Part of the Normal Rhythm of Life (2) Melatonin A hormone released in the brain that aids the regulation of circadian rhythms, as bright light reduces production and darkness increases production 11
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Sleep Is Part of the Normal Rhythm of Life (3) 12
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Consciousness Changes During Sleep (1) Stages of sleep The electroencephalograph (EEG) records electrical brain activity during different stages of sleep 13
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Consciousness Changes During Sleep (2) 14
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Consciousness Changes During Sleep (3) Four stages of sleep Stage 1 begins when sleepers drift off, shown on the EEG as theta waves In Stage 2 breathing becomes more regular, and sleepers become less sensitive to external stimulation.
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