Copy of EXAM 2.pdf - Topic Fossils and the Geologic Time Scale 1 What is a fossil Describe the two types of fossils and provide examples of each type

Copy of EXAM 2.pdf - Topic Fossils and the Geologic Time...

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Topic: Fossils and the Geologic Time Scale 1. What is a fossil? Describe the two types of fossils and provide examples of each type. Preserved remains (or traces) of an organism that existed in the past Bones are mineralized (turn into stone): organic material is replaced by minerals from the soil Paleontology= the study of fossils Paleoanthropology= the study of human fossils TWO TYPES OF FOSSILS a. Physical remains - bones, teeth b. Ichnofossils or trace fossils - footprints, coprolites - species was present in the past even if no physical of them - coprolites= fossilized poop 1. Describe the fossilization process for both open-air and cave sites. fossilization process for open-air sites 1) Animal dies next to water source 2) Soft tissues decompose/are eaten, only bones remain 3) Bones are damaged while they are exposed (*the more time they lay out outside, the more damaged they become) 4) Bones are covered by water 5) Bones are buried, mineralization occurs 6) Erosion exposes fossils fossilization process for cave sites 1) Caves form underground 2) Cave continues to expand 3) Cave opening reaches surface, causing things to fall in (talus cone forms= pile of things that fall in cave) 4) Talus cone blocks cave entrance; bones mineralize then turn into fossils; talus cone
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