Chapter 10: Language Study Guide - AP Psychology Study Guide Language 1 What are the hierarchically arranged linguistic units(phoneme morpheme etc and

Chapter 10: Language Study Guide - AP Psychology Study...

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AP Psychology Study Guide: Language 1. What are the hierarchically arranged linguistic units (phoneme, morpheme, etc.) and the distinctions among them? - sentence - phrase - word - morpheme: The smallest significant unit of meaning in a word (e.g., the word boys has two morphemes, boy and -s). - content morpheme: A morpheme that carries the main semantic and referential content of a sentence. In English content morphemes are usually nouns, verbs, adjectives, or adverbs. - function morpheme: A morpheme that, while adding such content as time, mode, individuation, and evidentiality, also serves a grammatical purpose (e.g., the suffixes -s and -er, or the connecting words and or if). - phoneme: The smallest significant unit of sound in a language. Alphabetic characters roughly correspond to phonemes (e.g., apt, tap, and pat are all made up of the same phonemes). Know how phonemes vary among languages. - English uses about 40 different phonemes - Other languages have different numbers - Not every phoneme sequence occurs in every language. Know the course of word and syntax acquisition in children starting around age 2. - The rate of word learning rapidly accelerates to about 3 a day in toddlers, to 5 or 8 or so a day in the preschool years, and to 10 to 15 words a day throughout childhood and early adolescence - The upshot is a vocabulary of about 10,000 words by age 5 and 65,000 or so by adulthood. Late in the second year of life, toddlers start to put the words together into little sentences—“Throw ball!” “No mommy eat!”—making us poignantly aware that another human mind is among us. Know some evidence about newborn humans suggesting that they already have a propensity to listen to human speech. - Neonates’ heart rate quickens or slows according to whether they hear a human speaking in a tone that is excited or soothing, or disapproving versus approving. - Infants prefer to look at and accept toys from strangers who are speaking the language they have been hearing in their own (so far very brief) lives. They even detect something strange if they hear strangers speaking the native language but with a foreign accent 2. Beyond recognizing speech, within a short time, infants can discriminate the speech of one language from that of another. What is some evidence to support that claim?
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