Chapter 11: Intelligence Study Guide - AP Psychology Study Guide – Intelligence(Chapter 11 Be able to distinguish between achievement and aptitude

Chapter 11: Intelligence Study Guide - AP Psychology Study...

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AP Psychology Study Guide – Intelligence (Chapter 11) Be able to distinguish between achievement and aptitude tests (not in your textbook.) - achievement : evaluates the information or skills a student has already learned - aptitude : designed to evaluate a person's ability to learn a skill or subject You will be expected to know what is meant by: frequency distribution, mean, median, variability, and normal curve. - frequency distribution : a table that lists how many scores fall into each of the designated categories - mean : a measure of central tendency computed by calculating the sum of all the observations, then dividing by the number of observations. - median : a measure of central tendency taken by putting the data values in order and finding the value that divides the distribution in half - variability : the degree to which scores in a frequency distribution depart from the central value - normal curve : Here’s a normal distribution: On the x-axis are standard deviation (SD) units. Know the relationships between SD units and percentage of scores falling between the mean and 1, 2 and 3 units. For example, between the mean and 2 SD units above the mean fall 47.72 % of scores (in a normal distribution). Know the meaning of correlation and what the correlation coefficient is. - correlation : The tendency of two variables to change together. If one goes up as the other goes up, the correlation is positive; if one goes up as the other goes down, the correlation is negative. - correlation coefficient : a number that expresses both the size and the direction of a correlation, varying from 1.00 (perfect positive correlation) to 1.00 (perfect negative correlation) Be able to define reliability and test-retest reliability , validity and predictive validity ; know what is meant by the procedure of standardization (not “standardized tests”). - reliability : the degree of consistency with which a test measures a trait or attribute - test-retest reliability : repeatability
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- validity : the extent to which a method or procedure measures what it is supposed to measure - predictive validity : an assessment of whether a test measures what it’s intended to measure,
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