Questions Module 4 CH 5 Ethics Ruiz.docx - Module 4 Chapter 5 Reading Questions(M4A1 Please do each of the following items Type out your answers under

Questions Module 4 CH 5 Ethics Ruiz.docx - Module 4 Chapter...

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Module 4 : Chapter 5 Reading Questions (M4A1) Please do each of the following items. Type out your answers under each item here, and submit this whole document. When needed, please number your answers and separate them with spaces. A. Answer the 10 Review Questions under Exercises on page 95. 1.Ethical egoism is a consequentialist theory that states that an action is right if it betters one’s own interest. Act-egoism determines if an action is right is dependent on the egoistic principle of individual acts, whereas Rule-egoism determines if an action is right based on if the act falls under a rule that if consistently followed would maximize your self-interest. 2.Psychological egoism is the view that motive for all actions is self-interest, meaning that every action we take is to promote our own interests. 3. The psychological egoist argument for ethical egoism is that we are morally obligated to do only what our self-interest motivates us to do because we cannot perform an action without our own self interest involved and being our motivation. 4. Psychological egoism is not true because each argument or experience that is used against the theory can be reinterpreted to support it, therefore it makes the theory untestable with no evidence to count against or in its support. 5. Ethical egoism is not consistent with our considered moral judgments because it sanctions action that we would regard as abominable. Meaning that following the rules may not always be in one’s own interest. Ethical egoism in theory would accept murder or dishonesty if it provides benefits to one’s own interest, examples include killing to claim life insurance, stealing to gain X amount of money. 6. Principle of Utility is a principle in which approves or disapproves of every action depending on how it would add or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question. 7. The main difference between the ways that Mill and Bentham conceive of happiness is the nature of happiness and how it should be measured. Bentham believes happiness varies only in quantity and Mill believes happiness can vary between quantity and quality. 8. The difference between act and rule utilitarianism is that act-utilitarianist tries to judge an action right based on the consequences they produce more happiness to those involved whereas rule-utilitarianist would try to follow every rule- even if doing so may not maximize utility.
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