Questions Module 5 Ch 6 Ethics Ruiz.docx - Module 5 Chapter 6 Reading Questions(M5A1 Please do each of the following items Write your answers under each

Questions Module 5 Ch 6 Ethics Ruiz.docx - Module 5 Chapter...

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Module 5 : Chapter 6 Reading Questions (M5A1) Please do each of the following items. Write your answers under each heading here and submit this whole document. Where needed, please number your answers and separate them with spaces. A. Answer the 13 Review Questions under Exercises on page 115. 1. The significance of a “good will” in Kant’s ethics is that action happens because it was done with a will to do your duty for duty’s sake, to act in moral obligation. 2. The difference between a hypothetical and a categorical imperative is that a hypothetical imperative is one that tells us what we should do if we have certain desires and a categorical imperative is something that tells us we should always do action X in all situations no matter our wants and needs. 3. The moral principle that is laid out in the first version of Kant’s categorical imperative is that every action implies a general rule or maxim and that you have to devise a maxim for the action and determine if it is an action that can be universalized. 4. A perfect duties are actions that must be done and followed without “fail” and imperfect duties are not always to be followed, they have exceptions. 5. Kant distinguishes between treating someone as a means and treating someone merely as a means by explaining that we should treat people as an ends in themselves, meaning not to abuse them or lie to them to get something else that we wants, and that we can sometimes use people to achieve some kind of end, such as the example of a mechanic to fix our car. We use the mechanic to achieve our end of wanting our car fixed, but we also respect and value the mechanic. By forcing him and lying about willing to pay him would be treating someone merely as a means. 6. The absolutism of Kant’s theory leads to judgements that conflict with moral common sense by restricting the ability to lie to save a life or breaking a promise to render immediate aide, because lying and breaking a promise is a perfect duty and there are no exceptions according to Kant’s theory. 7.The subjectivity of Kant’s theory can lead to the sanctioning of heinous acts due to the first part of Kant’s theory being that if one can live in such a world were action X is allowable, it would be considered a morally correct action. Meaning that if you personally were okay with living in a world where the rule was to “kill everyone with blonde hair” or “steal to have money” then the act would be permissible, therefor heinous crimes would be acceptable. 8. The natural law theory is the theory that states that we can look into nature and find how it nature should be and follow its guidance. That human nature aims to be naturally inclined towards preservation of life, avoiding harm, searching for truth, nurturing social ties and reasonable behavior. That our duty is to achieve only the good and to act only towards naturally inclined goals.
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  • Fall '15
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