HW3Q.pdf - POL-UA-850 Prof Spirling Students of the College must turn in to the TAs at the beginning of class on Thursday October 18(no later Note that

HW3Q.pdf - POL-UA-850 Prof Spirling Students of the College...

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POL-UA-850 , Prof Spirling Students of the College must turn in to the TAs at the beginning of class on Thursday, October 18 (no later!). Note that the course academic honesty policy applies to every homework, including this one. Take note that this homework uses a data set on legislative behavior that is distributed on the course website. Homework 3 1. Consider the following ‘boilerplate’: X is a condition for Y . For the following statements, for each X and Y , ‘fill in the blank’ with ‘necessary’, ‘sufficient’, ‘necessary and sufficient’ as appropriate. If all options are wrong, write ‘none apply’. This question refers to the US constitution, in particular how amend- ments may be proposed and ratified (and therefore adopted). Take a look at the text and the schematic in Figure 1: an amendment can either be made via the “Congress” route (which is the only one the US has used) or the “Convention” route. Figure 1: Amending the US Constitution 1. 1
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(a) X = 2/3 of the Senate adopts a proposed amendment. Y = successfully propos- ing an amendment via the Congress route. (b) X = 2/3 of the Senate and 2/3 of the House adopt a proposed amendment. Y = successfully proposing an amendment via the Congress route. (c) X = A convention of the states, duly called by Congress under Article V, adopt a proposed amendment. Y = successfully amending the Constitution via the Con- vention route. (d) X = 60 of 100 voting Senators adopt a proposed amendment. Y = successfully proposing an amendment via the Congress route. (e) X = all conditions for Congress route of ratification are met. Y = Amendment is proposed and ratified. (f) X = 90% of the states ratify the amendment coming out of the convention of the states, duly called by Congress under Article V. Y = successfully amending the Constitution via the Convention route 2. Read the NYT piece on breast feeding at the end of the homework, and answer the questions that follow. The author complains about so called ‘observational studies’. That is, studies where we compare women who breastfeed to those that don’t, and try to make inferences about its effects on children. (a) What’s wrong with this approach, in particular as regards the demographic fea- tures of the mothers who do and don’t breastfeed? (b) The author gives a specific example of a Scandinavian study. What was the out- come of interest in that study? (c) In that study, were the breastfeeding women similar on all variables to those who didn’t breastfeed? How did they differ? (d) In that study, what was the treatment/control? (e) Was the treatment randomized? If not, how did each mother/baby end up with the treatment they got? Was the treatment ‘blind’ in terms of the mothers know- ing which treatment/control group they were assigned to? 2
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(f) Did the authors of the original study understand the treatment and control group were different? What did they do about it in terms of estimating the causal effects?
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