Mitosis and Meiosis.docx - Mitosis and Meiosis Pre-Lab Questions 1 Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis Mitosis Equal division occurs in somatic

Mitosis and Meiosis.docx - Mitosis and Meiosis Pre-Lab...

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Mitosis and Meiosis Pre-Lab Questions 1. Compare and contrast mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis: Equal division/ occurs in somatic cells/ one karyokinesis and cytokinesis/ prophase is not further divided/ crossing over doesn’t happen/ one cell produces two daughter cells by the end of meiosis/ chromosome number od each daughter cell is equal to the parental cells/ daughter cells are identical to the parent cell Meiosis: Reduction division/ occurs in germs cells only/ two karyokinesis and one cytokinesis/ prophase one is further divided into 5 subphases/ crossing over happens/ one cell produces 4 daughter cells by the end of the entire meiosis/ chromosome number od each daughter cell is reduced to half of the parental cell/ daughter cells are not identical to the parent cell 2. What major events occur during interphase? Cellular organelles double in number, the DNA replicates, and protein synthesis occurs. 3. Why is it important that the primary and secondary oocytes contain the majority of the cytoplasm leaving the polar oocytes with so little? Oogenesis is the production of matured egg from a female germ cell. In females from the primordial germ cells oogonium is formed by mitotic divisions. The oogonium produces primary oocyte by mitotic divisions so these primary oocytes are diploid. The development of primary oocytes is arrested at prophase I at birth. Their development starts puberty again. These secondary oocytes undergo meiosis II, cytoplasmic division of the secondary oocyte results in the formation of an egg or ovum and a polar body, both are haploid. The polar body degrades itself and is not capable of being fertilized. These polar are small in size because they receive small amount of cytoplasm as cannot function as gametocyte, while the ovum receive high amount of the cytoplasm and are able to fertilize. 4. What are chromosomes made of? Each chromosome is made up of DNA tightly coiled many times around proteins called histones that support its structure. 5. Research the differences that exist in mitosis in plant versus animal cells. Plant and animals cells undergo mitotic cell divisions. Their main difference is how they form the daughter cells during cytokinesis. During this stage animal cells form furrow or cleavage that gives way to formation of daughter cells. Due to the existence of the rigid cell wall, plant cells don’t form furrows.
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6. Cancer is a disease related to uncontrolled cell division. Investigate two known causes for these rapidly dividing cells and use this knowledge to invent a drug that would inhibit the growth of cancer cells. A known cause is mutation for cancerous cells that can result in the cell becoming overwhelmed with toxins due to a poor ATP generation. This can eventually infiltrate the nucleus and corrupt the DNA. The second cause is weakened immune system from other factors such as bacteria, which can result in the body becoming unable to filter out malicious agents that results in an excess of toxins.
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  • Fall '16
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