Hondagneu Sotelo Domestica 1.pdf - P r efa ce t o t h e 2007 E dit ion THE DOMESTIC GOES GLOBAL Ca n we con ceive of globa liza t ion wit h ou t m igr a

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Unformatted text preview: P r efa ce t o t h e 2007 E dit ion THE DOMESTIC GOES GLOBAL Ca n we con ceive of globa liza t ion wit h ou t m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s? In t h e pr efa ce t o t h e fir st edit ion of t h is book , I a r gu ed t h a t t h e wor k of Mexica n a n d Cen t r a l Am er ica n dom est ic wor k er s wa s cr it ica l t o k eepin g a floa t t h e cu lt u r e a n d t h e econ om y of Los An geles/ a n d m or e gen er a lly/ t h e U n it ed St a t es. I st ill t h in k t h is is t r u e. Bu t a s I look ba ck n ow/1 a m st r u ck by t h e per va siven ess of t h is pa t t er n a r ou n d t h e globe. Wom en fr om cou n t r ies a s va r ied a s P er u / t h e P h ilippin es/ Molda via / E r it r ea / a n d In don esia a r e lea vm g t h eir fa m ilies, com m u n it ies/ a n d cou n t r ies t o m igr a t e t h ou sa n ds of im les a wa y t o wor k in t h e n ew wor ldwide gr owt h in du st r y: pa id dom est ic wor k . P a id dom est ic wor k er s in t h e U n it ed St a t es h a ve h ist or ica lly been disr ega r ded a n d t r ea t ed a s t h ou gh t h ey wer e in visible in t h e h om es wh er e t h ey wor k . So it is t oo wit h m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s on t h e globa l scen e. Bot h t h e celebr a n t s a n d cr it ics of globa liza t ion h a ve r a r ely pa u sed t o con sider t h e im por t a n ce of m igr a n t pa id dom est ic wor k er s. N ot on ly wer e t h e m oder n iza t ion t h eor ist s wr on g m pr em a h ir ely pr edict in g t h e dem ise of pa id dom est ic wor k in m odem societ ies/ bu t n eit h er t h ey n or t h e globa liza t ion t h eor ist s wh o followed t h em pr edict ed or a ck n owledged t h e r ole of m igr a n t dom est ie wor k er s in t h e er a of globa liza t ion a n d post in du st r ia l societ ies. I t h in k t h e r ea son t h ey h a ve n ot pa id a t t en t ion is r ela t ively sim ple: t h e clea n in g a n d ca r in g t h a t t a k es pla ce in pr iva t e h om es is seen a s wom en r s wor k . F or m a n y obs er ver s / s h ip p in g con t a in er s / over s ea s fa ct or ies/ a n d in t er n a t ion a l ba n k in g a r e t h e st u ff of globa U za t ion . Bu t a gr ou p of policy m a k er s a n d a ca dem ics, m ost of t h em wor k in g fr om a fem in ist per spect ive, h a s been pa yin g a m ple a t t en t ion t o t h e r ecen t expa n sion a n d disper sa l of t r a n sn a t ion a l m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s. A plet h or a of r ecen t r esea r ch —a select ed list of wh ich a ppea r s a t t h e en d of t h is pr efa ce—illu m in a t es t h e pr esen ce of for eign dom est ic IX P r efa ce t o t h e 2007 E dit ion xi x P r efa ce t o t h e 2007 E dit ion wor k er s in E u r ope/ t h e Gu lf St a t es of t h e Middle E a st / Isr a el/ H on g a s bu r d en s wh o wou ld con s u m e r es ou r ces / a n d t h ey wer e a ls o s een Kon g, Sin ga por e/ Ta iwa n / Ma la ysia / a n d in Ca n a da a n d t h e U n it ed t o be dem ogr a ph ica U y a n d r a cia lly u n desir a ble a s per m a n en t m em - St a t es. Mea n wh ile/ pa r t icu la r n a t ion s a r ou n d t h e globe h a ve ber s of t h e societ y. F or t h ese r ea son s, t h e r epr odu ct ion of fa m ilies em er ged a s t h e pla ces pr odu cin g m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s. Th e do- a n d com m u n it ies wa s for bidden . In m a n y in st a n ces/ gover n m en t m est ics/ cou n t r ies of or igin a r e diver se/ a s a r e t h e cir cu m st a n ces sit - legisla t ion en for ced t h ese pr oh ibit ion s on t h e per m a n en t in cor por a " u a t in g t h eir m igr a t ion a n d dom est ic em ploym en t , bu t t h ey sh a r e a t ion of wor k er s a n d t h eir fa m ilies. It wa s la bor / n ot h u m a n bein gs/ st a t u s a s t h e n ew clea n er s a n d ca r egiver s of t h e h ven t y-fir st cen t u r y. t h a t wa s bein g r ecr u it ed. Th e Br a cer o P r ogr a m / wh ich issu ed n ea r ly We live in t h e a ge of m igr a t ion . Ar ou n d t h e wor ld/ a t lea st 185 m il- H ve m illion t em por a r y la bor con t r a ct s t o Mexica n a gr icu lt u r a l la bor - lion people/ a n d per h a ps a s m a n y a s 200 m illion / r eside in cou n t r ies er s in t h e U n it ed St a t es bet ween 1942 a n d 1964, a n d t h e Gu est ot h er t h a n t h ose wh er e t h ey wer e bor n . Wh y a r e so m a n y people Wor k er P r ogr a m / wh ich r elied on Tu r k ish a n d Alger ia n m en t o r e- lea vin g t h eir cou n t r ies of or igin ? Th e lega cies of colon ia lism / n eo" bu ild cit ies a n d t oil in t h e fa ct or ies of E u r ope a ft er Wor ld Wa r II/ a r e colon ia U sm , im per ia lism / civil wa r s/ im per ia l wa r s/ u n even develop- t h e exem pla r s of t h ese m odem syst em s/ in wh ich la bor r ecr u it m en t m en t / a n d t h e con t em por a r y sh ock effect s of n eoMber a lism a n d r elied n ot on ly on m en / bu t on su bor din a t ed m en wh o wer e su bject ed polit ica l sh ift s h a ve la id t h e st r u ct u r e for t oda y's globa l m igr a t ion . t o m et icu lou s r u les a n d r egu la t ion s a n d t o r igor ou s/ deh u m a n izin g Mea n wh ile, in n ova t ion s in t ech n ology/ pa r t icu la r ly in t r a n spor t a t ion bodily in spect ion s. a n d com m u n ica t ion s / h a ve fa cilit a t ed t h is va s t h u m a n m ovem en t . Toda y/ in du st r y a n d m a n u fa ct u r in g a r e n o lon ger t h e pr im a r y fu l- In t er n a t ion a l m igr a t ion occu r s t h r ou gh lega l/ qu a sH ega l/ a n d illega l cm m s dr ivin g la bor m igr a t ion . To be su r e/ t h er e is st ill plen t y of ch a n n els. It is im por t a n t t o r ecogn ize, h owever / t h a t in m a n y ca ses/ m ovem en t , bu t it is va r ied. In a globa lized wor ld, fa ct or ies m igr a t e deliber a t e la bor -r ecm it m en t pr ogr a m s h a ve h elped t o a ct iva t e a n d t o pla ces over sea s t h a t offer ch ea per la bor . H igh -t ech a n d h igh ly ed- m a in t a in in t er n a t ion a l la bor m igr a t ion . Th ese a r e gen er a lly in a u gu - u ca t ed pr ofession a ls h a ve n ow join ed t h e in t er n a t ion a l m igr a t ion , a s r a t ed for em ployer in t er est s in t h e r eceivin g societ y/ a n d t h ey a r e fa - h a ve t h e legion s of m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s wh o cr isscr oss t h e cilit a t ed by r eceivin g-st a t e gover m n en t / a n d som et im es bila t er a l/ globe/ fr om s ou t h t o n or t h / fr om ea s t t o wes t . Con s equ en t ly, m s om e a gr eem en t s. Su ch pr ogr a m s r ely on t h e st a t e t o con don e a pa r t icu la r sit es/ we a r e seein g a n over su pply of m a le m igr a n t la bor a n d t h e sa t - t ype of lega l m igr a t ion pr edica t ed on t h e den ia l of m igr a n t s' ba sic u r a t ion of la bor m a r k et s for wor k in g m en . In pa r t s of E u r ope/ La t in h u m a n / la bor / a n d civil r igh t s. Am er ica n m igr a n t wom en —m ost ly E cu a dor ia n a n d P er u via n N ot lon g a go/ m igr a n t s wer e m a in ly m en . In fa ct / t h e in t er n a t ion a l wom en wor k in g a s d om es t ics —fa r ou t n u m ber t h eir m a le p eer s . I n la bor m igr a t ion of m en wa s a k ey fea t u r e of in du st r ia liza t ion . Du r - pla ces a s diver se a s It a ly/ t h e Middle E a st / Ta iwa n , a n d Ca n a da / F il- in g pea k per iods of m oder n iza t ion a n d in du st r ia liza t ion / t h e in du s- ipin a m igr a n t wom en wor k in g a s ca r egiver s a n d clea n er s fa r ou t - t r ia l st a t e r elied on t h e r ecr u it m en t a n d im por t a t ion of m en —u su a lly n u m ber F iU pin o m igr a n t m en . An d a s I n ot ed in t h e fir st edit ion of m en fr om p oor er / oft en colon ia l s ociet ies —t o d o "m en 's wor k ." Ch i- t h is book / m Los An geles n ewly a r r ived La t in a im m igr a n t wom en n ese, F iH pin o/ J a pa n ese/ Ir ish , It a lia n / a n d Mexica n m en / for in st a n ce/ fin d jobs m u ch m or e ea sily t h a n t h eir h u sba n ds a n d br ot h er s/ be- a ll t ook t u r n s a s r ecr u it s wh o wer e br ou gh t in t o bu ild t h e in fr a st r u c" ca u se of t h e st ea dy dem a n d for live-in dom est ic wor k er s. t u r e of a n in du st r ia lizin g Am er ica . Th ese m igr a n t s bu ilt ca n a ls a n d Th e seem in gly u n qu en ch a ble dem a n d for dom est ic wor k er s h a s r a ilr oa ds/ du g deep in m in es/ st ok ed fa ct or y fu r n a ces/ la id ir r iga t ion expa n ded m a fflu en t societ ies a r ou n d t h e globe. Bu t t h e dem a n d is pipes/ a n d pr ovided t h e la bor for la r ge-sca le a gr ibu sin ess. In som e a ct iva t ed in differ en t wa ys by differ en t n a t ion s. J u st a s t h e U n it ed in st a n ces/ fa m ily m em ber s wer e a llowed t o join t h em / bu t in m a n y St a t es a n d t h e West er n E u r opea n n a t ion s r elied on st a t e-oper a t ed ca ses/ especia lly t h ose m volvin g im m igr a n t gr ou ps per ceived a s syst em s of la bor r ecr u it m en t for m a le la bor er s m t h e m id-t wen t iet h n on -wh it e/ depen den t fa m ily m em ber s wer e den ied a dm ission t o cen t u r y/ syst em s pr em ised on t h e den ia l of polit ica l a n d civil r igh t s/ t h e m igr a n t -r eceivin g societ ies. Wom en a n d ch ildr en wer e per ceived so t oo h a ve a ser ies of n a t ion s n ow a ct iva t ed pr ogr a m s devised t o xii P r efa ce t o t h e 2007 E dit ion P r efa ce t o t h e 2007 E dit ion xiii r ecr u it a n d m a in t a in a su bor din a t ed cla ss of m igr a n t dom est ic wor k - a feu da l-U k e sit u a t ion . Som e m u st sign oa t h s pr om isin g loya lt y a n d er s in t h eir societ ies. Ma n y of t h e n ewly in du st r ia lized Asia n n a t ion s/ docilit y. Ot h er r u les specify h ow t h ey m a y dr ess a n d wea r t h eir h a ir , su ch a s Ta iwa n / H on g Kon g/ a n d Sin ga por e/ a s well a s Middle E a st - a n d. pr oh ibit m a k eu p or lipst ick . Th e con fisca t ion of pa sspor t s by em oil-r ich n a t ion s/ su ch a s Sa u di Ar a bia , Ku wa it / a n d fee U n it ed em ployer s is com m on . Dom est ic wor k er s m a y a lso be su bject ed t o Ar a b E m ir a t es/ r ely on st a t e-legisla t ed pr oject s t o r ecr u it m igr a n t m edica l su r veilla n ce design ed t o en su r e t h ey a r e n ot pr egn a n t / a n d dom est ic wor k er s. Th e m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s em ployed in t h ese m a y be pr oh ibit ed fr om lea vin g t h e h om es wh er e t h ey wor k except societ ies h a il fr om poor er n a t ion s t h a t a r e desper a t e t o ca pt u r e m i- for per h a ps a few h ou r s on on e a ft er n oon a week . Som e a r e su bject ed gr a n t r em it t a n ces for for eign exch a n ge/ a n d t o diffu se t h e socia l a n d t o bea t in gs or sexu a l a bu se/ bu t h a ve n o esca pe or a ccess t o lega l polit ica l pr essu r es cr ea t ed by u n em ploym en t . Con sequ en t ly, n a t ion s r ecou r se. Th e a n t h r opologist N icole Con st a ble ch r on icled a n d a n a - su ch a s t h e P h iMppin es/ In don esia , Sr i La n k a , a n d Th a ila n d a ct ively lyzed t h e m u lt iple wa ys in wh ich F ilipin a dom est ic wor k er s m H on g pr om ot e t h e ou t -m igr a t ion of wom en in t o globa l dom est ic wor k er Kon g a r e con t r olled a n d disciplin ed by t h eir Ch in ese em ployer s/ t h e la bor m a r k et s. st a t e/ a n d em ploym en t a gen cies. Th ese t ypes of policies a n d pr a c- Th e n a t ion -st a t es fr om wh ich dom est ic wor k er s m igr a t e h a ve r e- t ices, in differ en t for m s/ a ppea r a r ou n d t h e globe/ wh er ever t h e st a t e spon ded t o t h ese pr essu r es in va r ied wa ys. Th e P h ilippin es n ot on ly a ct ively in t er ven es m t h e r ecr u it m en t a n d r et en t ion of a m igr a n t fa cilit a t es t h e ou t -m igr a t ion of F ilipin a wom en a s dom est ic wor k er s, dom est ic wor k er la bor for ce. J u st a s sla ver y pr odu ced r u n a wa y bu t it h on or s t h e r et u r n m igr a n t dom est ica s a s "h er oes/" t o em ph a size sla ves/ m a n y t im es t h ese con dit ion s r esu lt in "r u n a wa y m a ids." In t h eir con t r ibu t ion s t o bu ildin g a n d su st a in in g t h e P h ih ppin e n a t ion . t h e wor st -ca se scen a r ios, t h ese sor t s of in st it u t ion a l con dit ion s h a ve Th e P h ilippin es does m a k e som e effor t t o in t er ven e on beh a lf of t h e r esu lt ed m t h e t r a gic dea t h s of m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s/ a s we dom est ic wor k er s/ bu t wh en F ilipin o diplom a t s a n d la bor a t t a ch es h a ve seen in Sin ga por e a n d Ku wa it . H u m a n r igh t s a dvoca t es a r ou n d a t t em pt t o im pose fa ir la bor st a n da r ds in t h e cou n t r ies wh er e F U ip- t h e globe h a ve r a ised t h eir voices a ga in st su ch a bu ses/ bu t t h e in st i- in a s go, t h ey oft en discover t h a t t h eir ba r ga in in g power is wea k / t u t ion a lized viola t ion of dom est ic wor k er s' h u m a n r igh t s h a s n ot especia lly in con t ext s wh er e m igr a n t wom en a r e a r r ivin g fr om ot h er / r eceived a s m u ch pu blic a t t en t ion a n d a ct ion a s h a s been dir ect ed com pet in g cou n t r ies. Mea n wh ile/ n a t ion s su ch a s Ba n gla desh a ct in t owa r d t h wa r t in g t h e illega l t r a ffick in g of wom en a n d gir ls. a m or e pa t er n a list ic/ pa t r ia r ch a l wa y/ a t t em pt in g t o t h wa r t a bu ses by In cou n t r ies su ch a s t h e U n it ed St a t es/ wh er e n eit h er t h e sen din g pr oh ibit in g t h e ou t -m igr a t ion of wom en a s for eign dom est ic wor k - n or t h e r eceivin g st a t e pr ogr a m m a t ica lly in t er ven es in t h e r ecr u it - er s. By con t r a st / Mexico—t h e n a t ion t h a t sen ds by fa r t h e m ost im m i- m en t a n d m a in t en a n ce of m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s, t h e sit u a t ion is gr a n t s t o t h e U n it ed St a t es/ a fa ir n u m ber of wh om win d u p wor k in g differ en t . To be su r e, a bu ses a bou n d a n d pa id dom est ic wor k er s st ill a s dom est ica s —r em a in s cu r iou sly silen t on t h e in cor por a t ion of Mex- su ffer t h e in dign it ies descr ibed in t h is book ; bu t la ws a n d r egu la - ica n wom en a s wor k er s in p r iva t e Am er ica n h om es . t ion s do n ot t ie m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s t o t h eir jobs/ a s t h ey do in Wh en n a t ion -st a t es colla bor a t e on con t r a ct -la bor pr ogr a m s for societ ies lik e Ku wa it or Ta iwa n . Mor eover / t h er e a r e la bor -pr ot ect ion dom est ic wor k er s/ t h e r egu la t ion s a r e u su a lly gea r ed t owa r d t h e la ws on t h e book s, a n d lega l a n d com m u n it y a dvoca t es wor k m g for con t r ol a n d su bm ission of t h ese wor k er s/ a n d n ot t owa r d en su r in g en for cem en t of t h os e r u les . We k n ow t h a t / for d om es t ic wor k er s a n d t h eir r igh t s. Wom en wh o fm d t h em selves m t h ese jobs fa ce n ot on ly a gr icu lt u r a l wor k er s, wh o wer e h ist or ica lly exclu ded fr om t h ese r a cis t a n d s exis t d is cr u n m a t ion / a n d s econ d -cla s s s t a t u s a s m igr a n t pa ct s/ t h e r ea ch of t h ese la ws h a s been lim it ed. La bor a ct ivist s/ legis- for eign er s/ bu t t h ey a r e a lso su bject ed t o in h m n a n e policies t h a t h a r k la t or s / a n d d om es t ic wor k er s t h em s elves / h owever , con t in u e t o p u s h ba ck t o a n ot h er cen t u r y. Migr a n t dom est ic wor k er s m a y be r equ ir ed for ch a n ge/ a s t h ey did in 2006, wh en t h ey t r ied t o ch a n ge Ca lifor n ia t o r em a in wit h on e em ployer for t h e du r a t ion of t h eir con t r a ct per iod, legisla t ion t o a llow over t im e la bor pr ot ect ion s for live-in dom est ic r ega r dless of t h e t r ea t m en t t h ey m igh t r eceive. If t h ey a r e u n h a ppy wor k er s a n d for per son a l a t t en da n t s. La t m a im m igr a n t dom est ic wit h t h eir job, t h ey m a y n ot seek ou t a n ot h er on e/ r em a in in g st u ck m wor k er s in t h e U n it ed St a t es h old a r a n ge of lega l st a t u ses, fr om P r efa ce t o t h e 2007 E dit ion xv xiv P r efa ce t o t h e 2007 E dit ion t h os e wh o a r e u n d ocu m en t ed t o t h os e wh o a r e n a t u r a lized U .S . cit i- is a big m or a l qu est ion / on e wit h socia l/ polit ica l/ a n d econ om ic con - zen s . To be s u r e, t h es e wom en wer e m a r ch in g in t h e s t r eet s d u r in g s equ en ces / t o wh ich r es ea r ch er s a n d p olicy m a k er s a r e n ow d evot - t h e Spr in g 2006 n a t ion a l m obiliza t ion s for im m igr a n t lega l r igh t s. in g m or e a t t en t ion . U n lik e t h eir globa l peer s wor k in g on t em por a r y con t r a ct pr ogr a m s/ Mea n wh ile/ it is im por t a n t t o list en t o t h e voices a n d exper ien ces m a n y iim n igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s in t h e U n it ed St a t es a lr ea dy Mve of t h e dom est ic wor k er s t h em selves. N ot a ll im m igr a n t dom est ic wit h t h eir own fa m ilies in im m igr a n t com m u n it ies m Am er ica n wor k er s a r e exploit ed. In fa ct / m a n y of t h em . r em in d u s t h a t t h ey a r e cit ies, bu t a m a ssive lega liza t ion pr ogr a m wou ld a llow t h em t o fu r - va lu a ble con t r ibu t or s t o t wo societ ies/ t h e on e t h ey left beh in d a n d t h er im pr ove t h eir la bor pr ospect s a n d bet t er su ppor t t h eir fa m ilies. t h e on e in wh ich t h ey wor k . Th ey va lu e t h eir jobs/ a n d wh en em - Som e La t in a im m igr a n t wor k er s, in Los An geles a n d elsewh er e in ployer s a n d societ y offer t h em socia l r ecogn it ion a n d fa ir la bor con - t h e U n it ed St a t es/ do fa ce a h n ost u n im a gin a ble for m s of a bu se a n d dit ion s/ .t h ey t a k e sa t isfa ct ion fr om t h eir wor k a n d t h eir ea r n in gs. exploit a t ion / bu t m a n y of t h em ca n a n d do expr ess t h eir dissa t isfa c- Th is, a ft er a ll/ is wh a t t h ese wom en a r e look in g for a s t h ey n a viga t e t ion by exit in g t h eir ba d jobs a n d fin dm g ot h er s. To be su r e/ fin a n cia l t h e globe: dign it y/ r espect , a n d t h e oppor t u n it y t o im pr ove t h eir own con sider a t ion s/ lega l st a t u s/ loca l la bor m a r k et s/ a n d socia l n et wor k s lives a n d t h ose of t h eir fa m ily m em ber s. ca n eit h er en a ble or det er n ew job sea r ch es. In t h e U n it ed St a t es Sou t h P a sa den a t oda y, t h e m ost br u t a l for m s of exploit a t ion in dom est ic wor k t h a t Au gu st 2006 we s ee a r e t o be fou n d bet ween co-et h n ic/ co-n a t ion a l im m igr a n t s a n d em ployer s. Th ese a r e in st a n ces in wMch u n m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s a r e br ou gh t h er e a n d en sla ved by em ployer s fr om t h eir own cou n t r ies. Th e vict im s of t h is t ype of a bu se oft en in clu de ch ild m a ids/ gir ls a s you n g a s t en or t welve/ wh o a r e k ept in ext r em e isola t ion a n d ser vit u de/ a n d su bject ed t o r ou t in e bea t in gs a n d t h r ea t s. In t er est in gly^ a s va r iou s m edia st or ies h a ve sh own , m a n y of t h e offen din g em ployer s h a ve been a ssocia t ed wit h som e of t h e pr em ier in t er n a t ion a l in st it u t ion s of globa liza t ion / su ch a s t h e Wor ld Ba n k a n d t h e U n it ed N a t ion s. In su ch ca ses/ a s em ployees of for eign n a t ion a ls or of Am er ica n cit izen s wit h per m a n en t r esiden cy a br oa d/ t h e dom est ic wor k er s m a y en t er wit h specia l visa s. On ce a ga in / t h e power of t h e st a t e exer t s it self a ga in st m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s. Wh ile t h e socia l t r en ds t h a t cr ea t e t h e in t er n a t ion a l flow of m igr a n t dom est ic wor k er s a r e d...
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