PPA FINAL.pdf - POWER AND POLITICS MIDTERM OUTLINE Notes on Campaigns Historical context ● Elite coordination and nominations ● Mass mobilization

PPA FINAL.pdf - POWER AND POLITICS MIDTERM OUTLINE Notes on...

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POWER AND POLITICS MIDTERM OUTLINE Notes on Campaigns Historical context Elite coordination and nominations Mass mobilization and party machines Increasing d and b Jacksonian Democracy and the Spoils System Party machines in urban U.S Demobilization: voting restrictions and disenfranchisements Post Reconstruction: systematic disenfranchisement of newly emancipated African Americans Felony disenfranchisement Permanent bar on voting even post-release for convicted felons Disproportionately targeting African Americans through Black Codes Contemporary context Decentralized coordination via parties Typical influence of party elites (though not in 2016 GOP) “The party decides” Campaign dynamics Learning, bandwagon effects, early influence Mobilization via canvassing Demobilization: Voter ID and its (non?)-effects Claim: Voter ID laws disenfranchise voters, especially minorities (Hajnal et. al. 2015) Recent empirical evidence States adopting ID laws saw increases in turnout Little evidence of effects on turnout or fraud What’s going on here? Possibility of countermobilization Vote Cues in Contemporary Contexts Party Incumbency Direct officeholder benefits: name recognition, communications Selection effects “Scare-off” effects Campaign spending
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Why would we expect candidates who spend more to perform better? Why should candidates spend so much when Persuasive effects are transient? Aggregate data suggest level of campaign spending doesn’t matter much? Issue ownership (Petrocik 1996) and the state of the world Association of parties with specific issues Structure of Party Competition Parties as brands for imperfectly informed voters Political parties and elections Electoral mobilization and candidate selection Coherent brands for imperfectly informed voters Persistence of the two party system Political parties in government Coalition formation and maintenance Coordination within/across branches Agenda control and policy making The unidemensional spatial model Review: connectedness and transivity Utility function: for each individual i, a mapping from set of alternatives to payoffs, with each alternative x assigned a unique value u(x) Unidimensional spatial preferences: suppose x’s are points arrayed left to right on a line The Median Voter Theorem Assumptions Suppose alternatives representable as points on a line Suppose all boters have single-peaked preferences over alternatives (summarized by ideal points) Suppose two office-seeking candidates who take positions on line Suppose simple majority For any distribution of voter ideal points, there is a nash equilibrium in which both candidates converge to the ideal point of the median voter More generally: the median voter’s ideal point is unbeatable Two formulations
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Downs: office-motivated parties should converge to ideal
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